Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2018 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Aquaporin Membrane Channels in Oxidative Stress, Cell Signaling, and Aging: Recent Advances and Research Trends

Figure 1

NO release by eNOS in physiological and peroxidative conditions. While “coupled” eNOS is involved in the physiological NO release underlying vasorelaxation, NO release by “uncoupled” eNOS is turned into OONO (peroxynitrites) leading to an increase in oxidative stress with consequent endothelial dysfunction. ADMA: asymmetric dimethylarginine; Akt: protein kinase B; BH4: tetrahydrobiopterin; CAM: calmodulin; Cav-1: caveolin 1; eNOS: endothelial NO synthase; cGMP: cyclic guanosine monophosphate; GTP: guanosine triphosphate; GTPCH: guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I; Hsp 90: heat shock protein 90; NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NO: nitric oxide; sGC: soluble guanylate cyclase; PKG: protein kinase G.