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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 2063179, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2063179
Review Article

Role of Oxidative Stress as Key Regulator of Muscle Wasting during Cachexia

1Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile
2Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Santiago, Chile
3Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas & Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile
4Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Targeted Delivery, Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Science, Faculty of Medicine, and Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile
5Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile
6Departamento de Gastroenterología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
7Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Biológicas, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Santiago, Chile
8Centro Integrativo de Biología y Química Aplicada, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, Santiago, Chile

Correspondence should be addressed to Claudio Cabello-Verrugio; lc.banu@ollebac.oidualc

Received 11 November 2017; Accepted 7 February 2018; Published 28 March 2018

Academic Editor: Rodrigo Franco

Copyright © 2018 Johanna Ábrigo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition mainly characterized by a loss of muscular mass and the contractile capacity of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of muscular weakness and decreased force generation. Cachexia is defined as a pathological condition secondary to illness characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass and with concomitant diminution of muscle strength. The molecular mechanisms involved in cachexia include oxidative stress, protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress is one of the most common mechanisms of cachexia caused by different factors. It results in increased ROS levels, increased oxidation-dependent protein modification, and decreased antioxidant system functions. In this review, we will describe the importance of oxidative stress in skeletal muscles, its sources, and how it can regulate protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in cachexia.