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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 5010741, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5010741
Review Article

Benefit of Oleuropein Aglycone for Alzheimer’s Disease by Promoting Autophagy

1Departamento de Anatomía, Histología y Neurociencia, Facultad de Medicina, UAM, Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2Molecular Oncology Unit, CIEMAT, Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3Biomedical Research Institute I+12, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Avenida de Córdoba s/n, 28041 Madrid, Spain
4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Madrid, Spain
5Centro de Biología Molecular “Severo Ochoa” (UAM-CSIC), Nicolás Cabrera 1, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
6Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Valderrebollo 5, 28031 Madrid, Spain
7Neuro-oncology Unit, Instituto de Salud Carlos III-UFIEC, Crtra, Pozuelo Km 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Ricardo Gargini; se.cisc.mbc@inigragar and Vega García-Escudero; se.mau@oreducse-aicrag.v

Received 3 December 2017; Accepted 21 January 2018; Published 20 February 2018

Academic Editor: David Vauzour

Copyright © 2018 Joaquín G. Cordero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease is a proteinopathy characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau and β-amyloid. Autophagy is a physiological process by which aggregated proteins and damaged organelles are eliminated through lysosomal digestion. Autophagy deficiency has been demonstrated in Alzheimer’s patients impairing effective elimination of aggregates and damaged mitochondria, leading to their accumulation, increasing their toxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study, we demonstrated by microarray analysis the downregulation of fundamental autophagy and mitophagy pathways in Alzheimer’s patients. The benefits of the Mediterranean diet on Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment are well known, attributing this effect to several polyphenols, such as oleuropein aglycone (OLE), present in extra virgin olive oil. OLE is able to induce autophagy, achieving a decrease of aggregated proteins and a reduction of cognitive impairment in vivo. This effect is caused by the modulation of several pathways including the AMPK/mTOR axis and the activation of autophagy gene expression mediated by sirtuins and histone acetylation or EB transcription factor. We propose that supplementation of diet with extra virgin olive oil might have potential benefits for Alzheimer’s patients by the induction of autophagy by OLE.