Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Anticancer Activity of Sulforaphane: The Epigenetic Mechanisms and the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

Table 1

The epigenetic regulation of sulforaphane (SFN) in cancer.

Epigenetic mechanismsCancer typesEpigenetic functionsTarget genes/proteinsAnticancer effectsReferences

Histone acetylationProstate cancer cells (LnCaP and PC-3) and PC-3 cell xenograftsInhibition of class I and II HDACsReactivation of p21 and BaxCell cycle arrest and apoptosis↑[42, 45, 49]
Colon cancer cells (HCT116)Inhibition of HDAC3CtIP: a critical DNA repair proteinDNA damage and apoptosis↑[43]
Acetylation of CtIP and its degradation
Lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) and A549 cell xenograftsInhibition of HDAC activityReactivation of p21 and BaxCell growth↓[44]

Histone phosphorylationBladder cancer cells (RT4, J82, and UMUC3) and UMUC3 cell xenograftsInhibition of histone H1 phosphorylationIncreased PP1β and PP2A phosphataseCarcinogenesis and progression↓[55]

DNA methylationProstate cancer cells (LNCap)Decreased expression of DNMT1 and 3bRestoration of cyclin D2Cancer cell death↑[59]
Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231)Inhibition of DNMT1 expressionRestoration of P21, PTEN, and RARbeta2Cell growth arrest and apoptosis↑[61]
Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231)Decrease in DNMT1 and 3a expression and activityDownregulation of hTERT expressionApoptosis↑[58]
Cervical cancer cells (HeLa)Inhibition of DNMT3b activityUpregulation of RARβ, CDH1, DAPK1 and BaxCell cycle arrest and apoptosis↑[60]

Noncoding RNA regulationOral squamous carcinoma cells (SAS and GNM); cancer stem cell xenografts (SAS and GNM)Induction of miR-200cSuppression of Bmi1Cell migration, invasiveness, and growth↓[65]
95D and H1299 cells and in vivo xenograftsDownregulation of miR-616-5pInactivation of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathwayEMT and metastasis↓[6]
Human glioma cell lines (H4, SNB19, LN229, and U251) and colorectal cancer cellsDownregulation of miR 21Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathwayApoptosis↑[66, 67]
Cell viability↓
Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3)Decreased expression of the lncRNA LINC01116 Cell proliferation↓[69]

CPG demethylation and histone acetylation at the Nrf2 promoterMouse skin epidermal JB6 (JB6 P+) cells and prostate cancer (TRAMP C1) cellsInhibition of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b and HDAC1–5 and HDAC7The reactivation of Nrf2Cell transformation and development↓[20, 21]