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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 6435861, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6435861
Review Article

Oxidant/Antioxidant Imbalance in Alzheimer’s Disease: Therapeutic and Diagnostic Prospects

Laboratory of Preclinical Testing of Higher Standard, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science, Pasteur 3 St., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Urszula Wojda; lp.vog.ikcnen@adjow.u

Received 14 September 2017; Accepted 18 December 2017; Published 31 January 2018

Academic Editor: Christopher Horst Lillig

Copyright © 2018 Joanna Wojsiat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and a great socioeconomic burden in the aging society. Compelling evidence demonstrates that molecular change characteristics for AD, such as oxidative stress and amyloid β (Aβ) oligomerization, precede by decades the onset of clinical dementia and that the disease represents a biological and clinical continuum of stages, from asymptomatic to severely impaired. Nevertheless, the sequence of the early molecular alterations and the interplay between them are incompletely understood. This review presents current knowledge about the oxidative stress-induced impairments and compromised oxidative stress defense mechanisms in AD brain and the cross-talk between various pathophysiological insults, with the focus on excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Aβ overproduction at the early stages of the disease. Prospects for AD therapies targeting oxidant/antioxidant imbalance are being discussed, as well as for the development of novel oxidative stress-related, blood-based biomarkers for early, noninvasive AD diagnostics.