Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways
Airway hyperresponsiveness. The airway resistance (R), after increasing concentrations of methacholine (MCh) (0–40 mg/ml), was measured via the forced oscillation technique (FlexiVent), at the end of the 2-month-exposure period to water pipe smoke (WPS) or air with or without exercise training. Dose-response relationship of total respiratory system resistance to increasing doses of MCh (a). From the resistance MCh dose-response curve in (a), an index of airway responsiveness was calculated as the slope of the linear regression using 0–40 mg/ml concentrations (b). Data are mean ± SEM ().