Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2018 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways

Figure 2

Representative light microscopy sections of lung tissues of mice, at the end of the 2-month-exposure period to water pipe smoke (WPS) or air with or without exercise training. (a, b) The air-exposed group shows normal lung tissue with unremarkable changes. (c, d) The exercise + air group shows normal lung tissue with unremarkable changes. (e–h) The WPS group: (e) low power view showing widening of interstitial space with mixed inflammatory cell infiltration. (f) shows moderate expansion of the alveolar interstitial space with many neutrophil polymorphs (thin arrow) and increased intra-alveolar macrophages (arrow head). (g) shows moderate expansion of the alveolar interstitial space with many neutrophil polymorphs (thin arrow), lymphocytes (thick arrow), and plasma cells (arrow head). (h) shows moderate expansion of the alveolar interstitial space with many neutrophil polymorphs (thin arrow), lymphocytes (thick arrow), and plasma cells (arrow head). There is a focal destruction of interalveolar septae (curved arrow). (i–l) The exercise + WPS group: (i) low power view showing focal mild widening of interstitial space with focal mild mixed inflammatory cell infiltration. (j–l) show focal mild expansion of the alveolar interstitial space with few neutrophil polymorphs (thin arrow) and few lymphocytes (thick arrow). There is a mild increase of alveolar macrophages (curved arrow).
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