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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 7582730, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7582730
Review Article

Chemotherapeutic Drugs and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Focus on Doxorubicin, Trastuzumab, and Sunitinib

1Laboratory of Pathophysiology of Cachexia and Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy
2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
3Bionem Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
4Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Institute, St George’s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Elisabetta Ferraro; ti.eleaffarnas@orarref.attebasile

Received 3 November 2017; Revised 23 January 2018; Accepted 6 February 2018; Published 18 March 2018

Academic Editor: Vladimir Jakovljevic

Copyright © 2018 Stefania Gorini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Many cancer therapies produce toxic side effects whose molecular mechanisms await full elucidation. The most feared and studied side effect of chemotherapeutic drugs is cardiotoxicity. Also, skeletal muscle physiology impairment has been recorded after many chemotherapeutical treatments. However, only doxorubicin has been extensively studied for its side effects on skeletal muscle. Chemotherapeutic-induced adverse side effects are, in many cases, mediated by mitochondrial damage. In particular, trastuzumab and sunitinib toxicity is mainly associated with mitochondria impairment and is mostly reversible. Vice versa, doxorubicin-induced toxicity not only includes mitochondria damage but can also lead to a more robust and extensive cell injury which is often irreversible and lethal. Drugs interfering with mitochondrial functionality determine the depletion of ATP reservoirs and lead to subsequent reversible contractile dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage includes the impairment of the respiratory chain and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent disruption of cellular energetic. In a context of increased stress, AMPK has a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis, and inhibition of the AMPK pathway is one of the proposed mechanisms possibly mediating mitochondrial toxicity due to chemotherapeutics. Therapies targeting and protecting cell metabolism and energy management might be useful tools in protecting muscular tissues against the toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs.