Table 1: Summary of included studies.

Study (ref)ParticipantsStudy designInterventionOutcomes measured

Chacko et al., 2011 [26]Male Sprague-Dawley rats (260–300 g)Parallel design, chronic ethanol exposure model, , blinding: single5 and 25 mg·kg−1·day−1 (1.3 and 7.5 mg·day−1) MitoQ for 4 weeksProtein oxidation (3-NT), mitochondrial ROS production in liver samples
Coudray et al., 2014 [31]Male Sprague-Dawley rats (190–200 g), 6 weeks of ageParallel design, rat feeding model: obesogenic diet, , blinding: single0.86 g·kg−1 (167.7 mg·day−1) MitoQ in a high-fat diet for 8 weeksAntioxidant enzymes (CAT, GPx, SOD), lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane), mitochondrial membrane potential, genes related to oxidative stress response/antioxidant activity (Nrf2) in liver samples
Dare et al., 2015 [28]Male C57BL/6 miceParallel design, ischemia-reperfusion injury model, , blinding: singleMice exposed to sham operation with 4 mg·kg−1 (0.10 mg·day−1) MitoQ administration, for 24 hours reperfusionOxidative damage (mtDNA), protein oxidation (PC) in kidney sample
Feillet-Coudray et al., 2016 [30]Male Sprague-Dawley rats (175–200 g), 6 weeks of ageParallel design, obesogenic diet-fed, , blinding: single0.86 g·kg−1 (161.25 mg·day−1) MitoQ given in high-fat diet for 8 weeksMitochondrial ROS production and membrane potential in skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) sample
Gioscia-Ryan et al., 2014 [16]Male C57BL/6 mice, 6 or 25 months of ageParallel design, MitoQ supplemented in drinking water, , blinding: single250 μM (169.70 mg·day−1) MitoQ dissolved in drinking water for 4 weeksAcute mitochondrial ROS production, protein oxidation (3-NT) in smooth muscle (carotid artery) sample
Lowes et al., 2008 [27]Male Sprague -Dawley rats (500 g)Parallel design, LPS/PepG model of sepsis, , blinding: single7.5 μmol·kg−1 (2.54 mg·day−1) MitoQ given in 1 ml saline bolus then 5 μmol·kg−1·h−1 at follow-up for 6 hoursMitochondrial ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential change in lung, liver and gut, and heart samples
Lowes et al., 2013 [14]Male Sprague-Dawley rats (463 g)Parallel design, at LPS/PepG model of sepsis, , blinding: double1.5 μmol·kg−1 (0.69 mg·day−1) MitoQ given in 1 ml bolus saline with 1 μmol·kg−1·h−1 as follow-up for 5 hoursProtein oxidation (PC), oxidative damage (DNA) in liver sample. Median data are reported.
Maiti et al., 2017 [23]Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats (210 ± 18.19 g)Parallel design, Pb neurotoxicity model, , blinding: single500 μM (339.41 mg·day−1) MitoQ dissolved in drinking water for 15 daysLipid peroxidation (MDA, TBARS), protein oxidation (PC, 3-NT), mitochondrial membrane potential in brain sample
McManus et al., 2011 [21]Female 3xTg-AD mice (transgenic and wild-type)Parallel design, transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, , blinding: single100 μM (67.88 mg·day−1) MitoQ dissolved in drinking water for 5 monthsLipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (3-NT) in cultured brain samples
Mercer et al., 2012 [18]Male and female ATM+/−/ApoE−/− and littermate ATM+/+/ApoE−/− mice, 6 weeks of ageParallel design, high-fat western diet-fed, , blinding: single500 μM (339.41 mg·day−1) MitoQ given as α-cyclodextrin complex of the methanesulfonate salt for 14 weeksProtein oxidation (PC), mitochondrial DNA in heart and liver samples
Miquel et al., 2014 [24]Male and female transgenic ALS mice carrying the G93A-mutated human SOD1 strain, 90 days of ageParallel design, ALS mouse model, , blinding: single500 μM (339.41 mg·day−1) MitoQ (as β-cyclodextrin complex) dissolved into drinking water, for 20 daysProtein oxidation (3-NT), reactive oxygen species metabolism (SOD) in brain, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle (quadriceps) samples
Ng et al., 2014 [25]Transgenic nematode strain CL2006 (unc-54/Aβ1–42) and wild-type (N2), 4 days post hatchParallel design, Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer’s disease, , blinding: double1 μM (0.68 mg·day−1) MitoQ stock solutions prepared in deionised water before being added to NGM agar 6 days post hatchingProtein oxidation (PC) of whole body (nematode) sample and oxidative damage (mtDNA) in mitochondria of nematodes
Ojano-Dirain et al., 2014 [35]Albino male guinea pigs (250–350 g)Parallel design, rats undergoing auditory brainstem response, , blinding: single0.03 g·l−1 MitoQ (as β-cyclodextrin complex of the methane sulfonate salt) dissolved in drinking water for 90 daysProtein oxidation (PC, 3-NT), antioxidant enzymes (SO) in inner ear (organ of corti) samples
Parajuli et al., 2012 [22]Male farm pigs (25–30 kg)Parallel design, cold storage of the kidneys, , blinding: single100 μM (67.88 mg·day−1) MitoQ flushed through the kidneys then stored with 1 l Belzer solution for 2 daysProtein oxidation (3-NT), mitochondrial ROS production in kidney samples
Powell et al., 2015 [29]Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–350 g)Parallel design, rat model haemorrhagic shock and reperfusion, , blinding: single5 mg·kg−1 (1.50 mg·day−1) MitoQ given IV then following resuscitation at 20 mg·kg−1 IPLipid peroxidation (TBARs), antioxidant enzyme activity (GPx, CAT, and SOD) in liver sample
Rodriguez-Cuenca et al., 2010 [19]Male C57BL/6 mice, 4–6 weeks of ageParallel design, MitoQ supplemented in drinking water, , blinding: single500 μM (339.41 mg·day−1) MitoQ, (as a β-cyclodextrin complex of the methane sulfonate salt) dissolved in drinking water for 28 weeksProtein oxidation (PC), oxidative damage (DNA) in heart and liver sample
Sakellariou et al., 2016 [20]Male and female wild-type C57BL/6 mice, 24 months of ageParallel design, CRM rodent diet-fed, , blinding: singleMitoquinone mesylate, at 100 μM (67.88 mg·day−1), (as a β-cyclodextrin complex) in drinking water for 15 weeksLipid peroxidation (8-OHdG), protein oxidation (3-NT), oxidative damage (DNA), mitochondrial membrane potential in skeletal muscle (anterior tibialis) sample
Shill et al., 2016 [33]Males, 18–40 yr old, healthyParallel design, participants undergoing moderate exercise, , blinding: double10 mg MitoQ pill daily with breakfast for 3 weeksLipid peroxidation (MDA, TBARs), oxidative damage (DNA) in blood samples
Supinski et al., 2009 [17]Male and female rats (200–250 g) and mice (25–35 g)Parallel design, E. coli model of sepsis, , blinding: single500 μM (339.41 mg·day−1) MitoQ injected IP with endotoxin for 2 daysProtein oxidation (PC) in heart samples
Wani et al., 2011 [32]Male albino rats (100–150 g)Parallel design, stress induced, , blinding: single100 μmol·kg−1·day−1 (67.88 mg·day−1) MitoQ dissolved in purified water for 12 weeksLipid peroxidation (MDA, TBARs, 8-OHdG), protein oxidation (PC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD) in brain sample
Xiao et al., 2017 [38]Male diabetic C57BL/6 mice, 12 weeks oldParallel design, 3-arm, , blinding: singleIP injection (5 mg twice wk−1) for 12 weeksMitochondrial membrane potential, Nrf2 in cultured kidney cells (human proximal tubular cell line, HK-2)

TBARs: thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; GPX: glutathione peroxidase; CAT: catalase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; PC: protein carbonyl; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; Nrf2: NF-E2-related factor 2.