(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1: HT effects on PMA-induced endothelial dysfunction. HUVEC were pretreated with HT (1–30 μmol/L) or vehicle (control, CTR) for 1 h and stimulated by PMA (10 nmol/L) for 16 h; then, TNF-α and IL-1β (a) or VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (b) mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. HUVEC were pretreated with HT (1–30 μmol/L) for 1 h; afterwards, a scratch wound was performed and monolayers were stimulated by 10 nmol/L PMA for 16 h. Cell migration was monitored under phase-contrast microscopy and quantified (c). HUVEC were plated onto a 3-dimensional collagen gel (Matrigel) surface, pretreated with HT (1–30 μmol/L), for 1 h, and then stimulated with 10 nmol/L PMA for 16 h. Tube formation was monitored under phase-contrast microscopy and reported as branch points per field (d). versus CTR; versus PMA alone.