Scutellarin Exerts Hypoglycemic and Renal Protective Effects in db/db Mice via the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway
Histopathological analysis in the (a) liver, (b) kidney, and (c) pancreas by H&E staining (scale bar: 100 μm; magnification: 400x). (d) mRNA expression of the renal damage markers RAGE, NGAL, and KIM-1, macrophage marker CD11b, and T cell marker CD3 in the kidneys of db/db mice measured using RT-PCR. Marker size from top to bottom: 2000 bp, 1000 bp, 750 bp, 500 bp, 250 bp, and 100 bp. H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; RAGE: receptor for advanced glycation end products; NGAL: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; KIM-1: kidney injury molecule 1; RT-PCR: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. in comparison with db/m+ mice, and in comparison with vehicle-treated db/db mice.