Study on the Multitarget Synergistic Effects of Kai-Xin-San against Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Systems Biology
Effect of KXS on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation-induced apoptosis. KXS treatment relieved the accumulation of ROS in the rat hippocampus (a). Effect of KXS on representative proinflammatory factors TNF-α (b) and IL-1β (c). Downregulation of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and bcl-2 by KXS treatment in the rat hippocampus resulted in a decrease of cleaved-caspase-3. Values were (). The column diagrams marked by different letters were significant to each other at the 0.05 level according to Duncan’s multiple range test.