Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2019 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases: From a Mitochondrial Point of View

Figure 1

Schematic representation of oxidative stress in health, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. In healthy conditions, the oxidant levels mainly produced in mitochondria are kept under control due to efficient mechanisms of defense that counterbalance the excessive production of oxidants and keep the homeostasis. However during the aging, the oxidant levels increase, while the antioxidant efficiency decreases generating an imbalance that leads to a noxious condition called oxidative stress and consequently to an oxidative damage of the main biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. The overall picture intensifies in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.