Antagonizing Effects of Clematis apiifolia DC. Extract against Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Damage to Human Keratinocytes
CAE activates Nrf2-mediated signaling. (a) HaCaT cells were transfected with the antioxidant response element- (ARE-) Luc reporter and a Renilla-luciferase expression plasmid using the DharmaFECT® Duo transfection reagent. After 24 h, the cells were incubated with CAE for 14 h. The cells were then harvested and subjected to a luciferase reporter assay. vs. untreated control. The results were confirmed by repeating three independent experiments. Data are expressed as the (b, c) HaCaT cells were incubated with CAE for 24 h and subjected to Western blot analysis (b), real-time PCR analysis (c) for Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1, and nuclear translocation analysis for Nrf2 using Western blot analysis (d) and immunocytochemistry (e).