Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2019 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Probiotics as Beneficial Dietary Supplements to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Diseases: Uncovering Their Impact on Oxidative Stress

Figure 1

Summary of the interaction between the gut microbiota and neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems and the interaction between the gut microbiota and microbiota target organs of the host. The gut microbiota provides (i) a mucosal barrier through tight and adherens junctions between enterocytes, (ii) immunomodulation and anti-inflammation through recruitment of immune cells, and (iii) energy metabolism via metabolites/short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), vitamins, and hormones. The brain-intestine axis acts through both an integrative autonomic nervous system, including the sympathetic/parasympathetic (vagal) afferent/efferent nerve pathways, associated with the neural myenteric network, and a neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamus-adrenocortical gland system.

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