Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2019 / Article / Fig 5

Review Article

Probiotics as Beneficial Dietary Supplements to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Diseases: Uncovering Their Impact on Oxidative Stress

Figure 5

Diagram illustrating the pathways of neural control of cardiac and vascular function through the autonomic neural system and possible sites of action of the probiotics (Pb) based on recent evidence. Mechanosensitive baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, and they discharge at BP systole-by-systole bursts of action potentials to the brainstem. The autonomic vagal and sympathetic efferents innervate the cardiac pacemakers and the myocardium (sympathetic ends). The resistance and conductance vessels are innervated by sympathetic efferent components. Modified from Vasquez et al. [28], with permission.

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