Zerumbone Exhibits Antiphotoaging and Dermatoprotective Properties in Ultraviolet A-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblast Cells via the Activation of Nrf2/ARE Defensive Pathway
Effect of ZER on activator protein- (AP-) 1-associated protein expression in UVA-irradiated HSF cells. Cells were pretreated with ZER (0, 2, 4, or 8 μM for 24 h) followed by irradiation in the absence or presence of 3 J/cm2 UVA for the indicated time. After irradiation, cells were allowed to incubate for 2 h and the subsequent experiments were performed. (a, b) The expression of p-c-Fos and p-c-Jun proteins in the absence or presence of UVA at various concentrations of ZER was measured using western blot method. Also, an immunofluorescence staining was also performed to measure the alterations in p-c-Fos (c) and p-c-Jun (d) expressions as described in the methodology. Results from three or more experiments were presented as , and the statistical significance was considered as , compared to untreated control cells; #,## compared to UVA-irradiated cells.