Zerumbone Exhibits Antiphotoaging and Dermatoprotective Properties in Ultraviolet A-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblast Cells via the Activation of Nrf2/ARE Defensive Pathway
Effect of ZER on the nuclear translocation, activation of Nrf2, and its associated proteins in UVA-irradiated HSF cells: ZER pretreated (2-8 μM for 2 h) HSF cells were irradiated in the presence (a, b) or presence (c, d) of 3 J/cm2 UVA (for the indicated time) were subjected to western blot for the measurement of total Nrf2 and Keap-1 protein expressions. The effect of ZER on this pattern was represented as fold change of Nrf2/Keap-1 ratio over the control values. This ratio determines the dissociation pattern of Nrf2 from Keap-1 in the cytoplasm. (e, f) HSF cells were treated with 8 μM of ZER at different time points (0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 h), and the expression of cytosolic, nuclear Nrf2 protein fractions was determined using western blot method. β-Actin and histone proteins were used as internal controls for cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2, respectively. Results from three or more experiments were presented as , and the statistical significance was considered as , compared to untreated control cells.