Zerumbone Exhibits Antiphotoaging and Dermatoprotective Properties in Ultraviolet A-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblast Cells via the Activation of Nrf2/ARE Defensive Pathway
Effect of ZER on ARE promoter activation and subsequent expression of HO-1 and γ-GCLC proteins in HSF cells. (a) Cells were treated with ZER (8 μM for 2 h) and subcellular localization of Nrf2 was determined using immunostaining method. (b) HSF cells were cotransfected with pGL3-ARE and treated with various concentrations of ZER (2-8 μM for 2 h) to measure the percentage of ARE promoter activity. Data was presented as fold over increase in the percentage of ARE promoter activity. (c, d) The effect of ZER treatment (8 μM) on the expression of total Nrf2 and antioxidant proteins (HO-1 and γ-GCLC) at different time points (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 24 h) was measured using western blot method against β-actin as an internal control. Results from three or more experiments were presented as , and the statistical significance was considered as ,, compared to untreated control cells.