Zerumbone Exhibits Antiphotoaging and Dermatoprotective Properties in Ultraviolet A-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblast Cells via the Activation of Nrf2/ARE Defensive Pathway
Role of signal transduction pathways mediating the activation of nuclear Nrf2 in ZER-pretreated HSF cells. Cells were pretreated with pharmacological inhibitors for MAPK p38 (SB203580, 20 μM), ERK (PD98059, 30 μM), JNK (SP600125, 25 μM), PI3K/AKT (LY294002, 30 μM), PKC (GF109203X, 2.5 μM), AMPK inhibitor (compound C, 10 μM), casein kinase II inhibitor (CKII inhibitor, 20 μM), or ROS inhibitor (NAC, 1 mM) for 30 min followed by ZER treatment (8 μM) for 2 h. Cells were harvested and nuclear protein fraction was analyzed using western blot method. Histone was used as an internal protein control. Results were presented as of three assays. compared to untreated control cells; ##,### compared to ZER alone-treated cells.