Figure 4: Noise causes annoyance and stress responses characterized by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, thrombosis, and altered gene expression. Adapted from Münzel et al. [6]. Ang II: angiotensin II; AT1: angiotensin receptor type 1; ATM: ataxia telangiectasia mutated; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; Fas: cell death signaling molecule (CD95); FOXO: forkhead-box-protein O3; HPA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; Nox: NADPH oxidase; NO: nitric oxide; O2: oxygen; TGF: transforming growth factor. Adapted from Münzel et al. [6] with permission.