Melatonin and Docosahexaenoic Acid Decrease Proliferation of PNT1A Prostate Benign Cells via Modulation of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and ROS Production
DHA and MLT antiproliferative effect. (a) PNT1A cell proliferation incubated with 10, 20, 50, and 100 μM of DHA after 24, 48, and 72 h. Legend of panel (a): C: control (vehicle incubation). Statistical analysis of panel (a): (A) different from C; (B) different from 10 μM; (C) different from 20 μM; (D) different from 50 μM. (b) Lipid droplets (arrow) stained (red) with Oil Red O (bottom row) after incubation with vehicle (C) or DHA at 10, 20, 50, and 100 μM for 48 h. Images captured with 40x objective. For qualitative analysis, two independent experiments were performed in duplicate, and the most representative lipid accumulation for each DHA concentration is shown. (c) PNT1A cell proliferation incubated with 1 pM, 1 nM, 1 μM, and 1 mM of MLT after 48 h. Legend of panel (c): C: control (vehicle incubation); MLT: melatonin incubation; DM: coincubation with 100 μM of DHA and melatonin. Statistical analysis of panel (c): (A) different from C; (B) different from MLT considering same concentration range; (C) different from MLT-1 pM; (D) different from MLT-1 nM; (E) different from MLT-1 μM; (G) different from DM-1 pM; (H) different from DM-1 nM; (I) different from DM-1 μM; was determined as statistically different. All proliferation assays were performed in triplicate, and three independent events considered for statistical analysis. Values show the mean of absorbance and SEM.
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