Total Polysaccharides of Lily Bulb Ameliorate Menopause-Like Behavior in Ovariectomized Mice: Multiple Mechanisms Distinct from Estrogen Therapy
The effects of estradiol and TPLB on OVX-induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cognitive performance after coadministration with ICI182,780. (a) Duration in the central zone in the open-field test (OFT); (b) number of entries into the central zone in the OFT; (c) duration in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test; (d) number of entries into the open arms in EPM; (e) percentage of sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test (SPT); (f) immobility time of forced swimming test (FST); (g) immobility time of the tail suspension test (TST). Data are expressed as () and examined with one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Sidak’s multiple comparison test. (h) Escape latency in the acquisition trials; (i–n) representative individual swim paths in the probe trial of the sham group (i), OVX group (j), OVX-E2 group (k), OVX-E2-A group (l), OVX-TP group (m); OVX-TP-A group (n); (o) swimming speed in the probe trial; (p) duration in the target zone in the probe trial; (q) entry number into the target zone in the probe trial; (r) latency to the target zone in the probe trial. Data are expressed as () and examined with two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and one-way ANCOVA, followed by post hoc Sidak’s multiple comparisons test: ,, and vs. the sham group; #,##, and ### vs. the OVX group; &,&&, and &&& vs. the E2 group or TP group. Different color symbols in (h) indicate the corresponding groups.
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