Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasculoprotective effects by the DPP-4 inhibitor or GLP-1 analog therapy in septic mice. (a) Whole blood Hb-NO levels were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy as a read-out of iNOS activity. (b) Mortality of endotoxemic mice was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves recording the survival in dependence of time. 17.5 mg/kg LPS or solvent was administrated by i.p. injection. DPP-4 inhibitor (Lina: 5 mg/kg/d s.c. for 3 d) and GLP-1 analogue (Lira: 200 μ
g/kg/d s.c. for 3 d) treatment was started 6 h after the induction of endotoxemia. (c) Microvascular thrombosis was detected by fluorescence imaging using fluorescent microbeads in endotoxemic wild-type mice, DPP-4-/-
mice, and GLP1r-/-
mice. Representative images of lungs are shown beside the quantification. The data are
from 6-18 (a), 12 (b), or 4-6 (c) mice/group.
vs. B6; #
vs. B6+LPS; §
. Adopted from Steven et al. [247
] (with permission from John Wiley and Sons. Copyright © 2016, John Wiley and Sons).