Review Article

Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Diseases

Figure 2

Mitochondria dynamics. Summary of major molecular events related to the mitochondria: apoptosis, mitophagy, and process of fusion/fission. In the apoptotic process, the function of BCL-2 family proteins in the control of integrity mitochondrial outer membrane is shown. In particular, the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK heterodimering open a channels, which allows the release of proteins such as the cytochrome-c, Smac/DIABLO, Endo G/AIF. These latter, in turn, led to caspase cascade activation, which induces the apoptotic modifications.