Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Diseases

Table 1

Biomarkers of oxidative stress.

BiomarkersFeatures

MDA (malondialdehyde)Marker specific of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid peroxidation
HNE (4-hydroxy-2 nonenal)Marker of arachidonic and linoleic acid oxidation
Sulfenic acid (SOH)Marker of cysteine residue oxidation in specific proteins or enzymes (reversible)
Sulfinic (-SOOH) and sulfonic (-SOOOH) acidsMarker of cysteine residue oxidation in specific proteins or enzymes (irreversible)
Protein nitrosylationMarker of cysteine residue modification induced by RNS (reversible)
Nitrated proteinsIrreversible tyrosine residue modification induced by RNS
Carbamylated proteinsGenerated following the attack of the OH radical to the residues of proline, lysine, and arginine
Oxidized LDLGenerated by LDL oxidation with ROS, RNS, and carbon-centered radicals

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