Elevated H2AX Phosphorylation Observed with kINPen Plasma Treatment Is Not Caused by ROS-Mediated DNA Damage but Is the Consequence of Apoptosis
Metabolic activity and oxidation of TK6 cells after exposure to plasma, H2O2, HOCl, and UV. (a) Image (top) and scheme (bottom) with some of the products generated by the kINPen argon plasma jet. (b–e) Metabolic activity 6 h after exposure to different concentrations of ROS, or plasma or UV treatment times. (f) Effects of antioxidants or ROS scavenging enzymes on the metabolic activity of cells in responses to treatments after 6 h. (g) Overlay histogram of DCF fluorescence of control and plasma-treated cells. (h) Quantification of DCF fluorescence in cells immediately after treatment in the presence or absence of antioxidants. (i) Overlay histogram of mitotracker orange (MTO) in cells 6 h after plasma treatment. (j) Quantification of mitochondrial mass in cells exposed to various agents in the presence or absence of antioxidants. Data are . of 2–4 independent experiments with several replicates each. Statistical analysis (h, j) within each treatment group was done with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s post hoc test to vehicle control.