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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2019, Article ID 9042526, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9042526
Research Article

Worsening of Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Atherosclerotic Lesions in Aged LDLr-/- Mice after Consumption of Guarana Soft Drinks

1Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Vila Velha University (UVV), Vila Velha, ES, Brazil
2Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology (IFES), Vila Velha, ES, Brazil
3Laboratory of Cellular Ultrastructure Carlos Alberto Redins (LUCCAR), Department of Morphology, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES, Brazil
4Laboratory of Translational Physiology, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
5Pharmacology of Chronic Diseases (CDPHARMA), Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases Research Center (CIMUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Thiago Melo Costa Pereira; moc.liamg@cmtarierep

Received 8 February 2019; Accepted 12 May 2019; Published 10 June 2019

Academic Editor: Silvana Hrelia

Copyright © 2019 Layla Aparecida Chisté et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Excessive consumption of soft drinks (SD) has become a health problem worldwide due to its association with related cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the possible impacts associated with the consumption of Brazilian guarana (normal and zero) SD in dyslipidemic mice, thus mitigating potential clinical confounders such as poor-quality diet, lifestyle, body composition, and/or comorbidities. Methods. Sixteen-month-old LDLr-/- mice were divided into the following groups: (1) control; (2) GSD: normal guarana SD; and (3) Z-GSD: zero guarana SD. All were fed ad libitum, and blood pressure was measured noninvasively. After 8 weeks, aorta, blood, liver, and stomach samples were collected for histological and biochemical analyses. Results. Guarana soft drinks increased atherosclerosis (~60%) and were associated with hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis (~2-fold) of blood cells, besides presenting an increase in liver and gastric damage even in normoglycemia. Interestingly, Z-GSD did not cause the aforementioned changes, except in hemodynamic and renal parameters. Conclusions. Chronic administration of GSD is prooxidative, compromising the cardiovascular, gastric, and hepatic systems; the effects are due at least in part to free sugar consumption but not to guarana extract per se.