Figure 4: ROS overproduction and genotoxic effects are associated with normal guarana soft drink (GSD) but not in zero guarana soft drink (Z-GSD) intake. (a) ROS production was assessed by DHE, DCF, and HPF and measured by flow cytometry. (b) Quantification of homocysteine and (c) protein oxidation (AOPP) in the serum of the 3 groups. (d) Detection of DNA damage in blood is assessed by an alkaline comet assay. Typical comets show greater DNA fragmentation only in the GSD group compared to that in the control group, which contrasts with the Z-GSD group, quantified and represented in the graph in (e). Bar graph in (f) shows the percentage of DNA tail moments (~2-fold higher in the GSD group). Values are presented as the for animals per group. vs. the control group and # vs. the GSD group (one-way ANOVA).