Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Effects and Mechanisms of Five Psoralea Prenylflavonoids on Aging-Related Diseases

Table 2

Experimental summary of five psoralea prenylflavonoids improving aging-related diseases.

ClassificationModelStimulationActive ingredientDosagePharmacological effectReference number

Cardiovascular function regulationMale SD rat aortic rings and HEK293 cellsExposure to 60 μmol/L KCl followed by two exposures to 1 μmol/L phenylephrine to precontract ringsIsobavachalcone50 μmol/L for aortic rings and 150 μmol/L for hTRPC3 test(i) Caused the relaxation of precontracted aortic rings in the presence of endothelium
(ii) Isobavachalcone-induced vasodilation was blocked by NOS inhibitor L-NAME and SGC blocker ODQ
(iii) Inhibited hTRPC3 currents ()
[51]
Platelets from fresh rabbit bloodInduction with collagen (col), arachidonic acid (AA), or platelet-activating-factor (PAF)Isobavachalcone
Neobavaisoflavone
2, 5 or 80 nmol/L(i) Concentration-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation
(ii) IC50 for isobavachalcone: (col), (AA), and (PAF); IC50 for neobavaisoflavone: (col), (AA), and (PAF)
[52]
Rat liver microsome
And HepG2 cells
NonBavachin
Isobavachalcone
3.0, 9.3, 30, and 8, 93.0, 300 μmol/L(i) Inhibits ACAT activity
(ii) IC50 values were 86.0 μmol/L (bavachin) and 48.0 μmol/L (isobavachalcone) in the ACAT assay system
(iii) Isobavachalcone inhibited cholesteryl ester formation in a dose-dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 100.2 μmol/L in HepG2 cells
[7]
HUVECInduction of senescent cells by hydrogen peroxideBavachalcone2.5, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L(i) Inhibited acidic beta-galactosidase activity
(ii) Induced RORα1 expression in RORα reporter luciferase activity, mRNA, and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced the circadian amplitude of Bmal1 mRNA expression after serum shock
(iii) Suppressed senescence in human endothelial cells and mRNA expression of p16 (ink4a) (a marker of replicative senescence) and IL-1α (a proinflammatory cytokine of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype)
[57]
HUVECInduction of senescent cells by hydrogen peroxideBavachalcone1, 2, 5 μmol/L(i) Inhibited acidic beta-galactosidase activity
(ii) Promoter and increased MnSOD mRNA and protein expressions
(iii) Suppressed the mitochondrial superoxide production in endothelial cells
(iv) Stimulated liver kinase B1 and AMPKα phosphorylation
(v) AMPK knockdown by shRNA-AMPK reversed the effects of bavachalcone on MnSOD
[58]
(1) HUVECs
(2) EA.hy926 cells
(3) Rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells
(4) Male Wistar rat
Rat ischemic hindlimb modelBavachalcone1, 2, 5 μmol/L for cell culture and 3 mg/kg daily intragastric administration for in vivo experiments(i) Low-dose bavachalcone administered orally for 14 days stimulated the recovery of ischemic hindlimb blood flow in rat hindlimb ischemia models
(ii) Increased circulating EPCs and promoted capillary angiogenesis
(iii) Bavachalcone treatment of rat bone marrow cells for 24 h initiated the AMP-activated protein kinase activity
(iv) Enhanced the activity of RORα1 and EPO luciferase reporter gene
(v) Bavachalcone treatment elevated EPO mRNA and protein expression in vitro and in vivo and the circulating EPO levels in rats
(vi) Bavachalcone induced differentiation of bone marrow cells into endothelial progenitor cells
(vii) Increased number of EPCs and the level of EPO in the circulation in rats
[59]
Diabetes and obese interventionMouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytesMedia containing MDI (1 μg/mL isobutyl-methylxanthine, 1 μM dexamethasone, and 1 μg/mL insulin)Bavachin2 μmol/L(i) Increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin
(ii) Enhanced glucose uptake via GLUT4 translocation
[45]
9-week-old female db/db miceHigh-fat dietBavachinin50 and 100 mg/kg/day(i) Bavachinin dose-dependently induced the transcriptional activities of the mouse ligand-binding domain of PPARγ and PPARα
(ii) Ameliorates diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in db/db and in diet-induced obese mice
(iii) Decreased lipid accumulation in liver in db/db and in diet-induced obese mice
(iv) Regulates PPAR gene expression in vitro and in vivo
(v) Occupies a novel alternative binding site in addition to the canonical site of synthetic agonists of PPARγ
[80]
3T3-L1 preadipocytes and ZebrafishMedia containing MDI (1 μg/mL isobutyl-methylxanthine, 1 μM dexamethasone, and 1 μg/mL insulin)Isobavachalcone2, 10, 40 μmol/L(i) Decreased protein levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα
(ii) Gene expression levels of SREBP1c, adiponectin, ACC1, and FAS
(iii) Inhibited adipogenesis and prevents lipid accumulation in high cholesterol-diet Zebrafish larvae
[81]
NeuroprotectionBV-2 microgliaLPS
450 μmol/L of H2O2 solution
Bavachin
Bavachinin
Bavachalcone
Isobavachalcone
1, 10, 100 μmol/L(i) Inhibited neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and key AD-related protein targets in BV-2 microglia
(ii) Inhibited β-secretase (BACE-1), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression
(iii) Bavachalcone and isobavachalcone exhibited strong inhibitory activities on Aβ42 aggregation
[82]
SH-SY5Y cell
Yeast two hybrid
Aβ42Isobavachalcone (IBC)
Bavachinin (BCN)
3 μmol/L (IBC) and 30 μmol/L (BCN)(i) Inhibited Aβ42 aggregation
(ii) Attenuated Aβ42-induced cell toxicity
[83]
Mouse BV-2 cells
Neuro-2a cells
Male C57BL/6 mice
LPS
Preadministration of MPTP (20 mg/kg)
Isobavachalcone0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L
50 mg/kg
(i) Improved the motor, balance, and coordination abilities of PD mouse
(ii) Inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes and the necrosis of neurons injured by MPTP
(iii) Decreased the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in PD mouse and of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 in BV-2 cells stimulated by LPS
(iv) Inhibited the activation of p65 subunit in brain tissues the expression of p65 in BV-2 cells
(v) Inhibited the levels of NO and the expression of iNOS in LPS-treated BV-2 cells
[84]
BV-2 cells
HT22 hippocampal cells
LPS (1 μg/mL)
250 μmol/L of H2O2
Isobavachalcone
Neobavaisoflavone
5, 10, 20 μmol/L(i) Protective effects against H2O2-induced neuronal cell damage in HT22 hippocampal cells
(i) Isobavachalcone had the most significant inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced NO production in dose-dependent manners in BV-2 cells
[85]
Human hMAO-A and hMAO-BNonBavachinin10, 20, and 40 μmol/L or 18.75, 75, and 300 μmol/L(i) Selectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activity
(ii) With IC50 of 8.82 μmol/L (hMAO-B) and 189.28 μmol/L (hMAO-A)
(iii) Bavachinin C7-methoxy group had higher affinity for hMAO-B using molecular docking examination
[86]
Regulation of bone formation and absorptionHeLa cellsNonBavachin
Isobavachalcone
Neobavaisoflavone
10-9, 10-8, 10-7, 10-6 mol/L(i) Activated transcription of ERα or ERβ in HeLa cells[126]
Female SD rats
Human osteoblasts
OvariectomyBavachin8 mg/kg/day
0.5, 5, 50 μmol/L
(i) Increased the thickness and integrality of femur cortical bone
(ii) Increased the mRNA level of OPG in the OVX femur
(iii) Promoted the proliferation of human osteoblasts
(iv) Induced primary human osteoblast differentiation by upregulated the Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway
(v) Increased ALP, Runx2, OCN, Col-I, and LRP5 expression
[127]
MC3T3-E1cellsNonNeobavaisoflavone1, 5, 10, 15, 20 μmol/L(i) Induced mineralization in MC3 T3-E1 cells
(ii) Upregulated the expression of Runx2 and Osx
(i) Induced activation of ALP, the expression of Col-I, OCN, and BSP
[130]
Bone marrow-derived macrophagesRANKL
Vitamin D3 (10-6 mol/L) and PGE2 (10-8 2mol/L).
Bavachalcone0.5, 1, 2, 5 μmol/L(i) Inhibited osteoclastogenesis in coculture of whole bone marrow cells and calvarial osteoblasts and inhibited bone resorption
(ii) With the IC50 of approximately 1.5 μmol/L
(iii) Suppressed the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 by RANKL
(iv) Reduced activation of MEK, ERK, and Akt by RANKL
[135]

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