Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Natural Antioxidants: A Review of Studies on Human and Animal Coronavirus

Table 1

Antioxidant properties of natural inhibitors of coronavirus.

CompoundType of cells tested/assays/experimental modelsConcentration / doseAntioxidant effectReference

QuercetinHepG2 cells10 μmol/LInhibiting oxidative stress promoted by H2O2[48]
Rats with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome50 mg/kg (p.o.)Promoted an increase in SOD, CAT, and GPx and reduced lipid peroxidation[49]
Sepsis-induced acute lung injury in rats100 mg/kg (p.o.)Reduces lipid peroxidation and increases SOD and CAT levels[50]
Quercetin 3-β-glucosideStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats40 mg/kg (p.o.)Increases levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, vitamins C and E, and GSH and reduces lipid peroxidation[53]
Quercetin 3-β-galactosideHigh glucose-induced injury of myocardial cells20 nmol/LDecreases apoptosis and ROS production and increases SOD levels[56]
Quercetin 7-ramnosideCCl4-induced liver damage model in mice
20 mg/kg
IC50 = 118.75 μM (DPPH)
Decreases lipid peroxidation and increases CAT and GSH levels
Scavenging of free radicals
Epigallocatechin gallateRats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus2.5 mg/100 g (i.p.)Reduces indirect nitric oxide synthesis and total oxidative status
Increased levels of CAT and total antioxidant capacity of plasma
Rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus2 mg/kg (p.o.)Increased levels of CAT, SOD, and GSH
Reduced levels of superoxide and protein carbonyl (PCO) and prevented DNA damage
Epigallocatechin gallateDPPH
400 μM, , and , respectively
, , and , respectively
Gallocatechin gallateAcute lung injury induced by sepsis in rats50 mg/kgDecreases TBARS levels and increases levels of SOD and GSH[69]
AmentoflavoneDPPH, ABTS, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals50 μg/mLScavenging of free radicals (19.21-75.52%)[67]
, , and , respectivelyScavenging of free radicals[71]
Cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in rats25 mg/kg (p.o.)Reduces levels of MDA, increases SOD levels, and prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis[72]
LuteolinHuman colon cancer cells (HT-29)50 μg/mLIncreases levels of GSH, expression of GSH synthetase, and the activity of SOD and CAT[75]
Acute lung injury induced by sepsis in mice0.2 mg/kg (i.p.)Reduces lipid peroxidation, increases the activity of SOD and CAT, and suppresses the NF-κB pathway[76]
HerbacetinMice with obesity-associated insulin resistance induction40 mg/kg (p.o.)Increases the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase[79]
PectolinarinHepatic injury induced by D-galactosamine in rats10 and 20 mg/kg (p.o.)Increases levels of SOD, GSH, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase[80]
RhoifolinORACApproximately 10 Trolox equivalents (μM)Scavenging of free radicals[83]
Dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation assay
(mol Trolox equivalents/mol), (mol Trolox equivalents/mol), and , respectivelyScavenging of free radicals[86]
IsobavachalconeDPPH SC50
250.8 μM, equivalent to FeSO4·7H2O, and 510.1 mM, respectivelyScavenging of free radicals[88]
PsoralidinElectron spin resonanceScavenging of free radicals[87]
Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79-4) treated with H2O2
5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL
10 μg/mL
Scavenging of free radicals (21% and 54%, respectively)
Prevents DNA damage and lipid peroxidation
Increases the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx
HelichrysetinORAC Trolox equivalentsScavenging of free radicals[92]
Superoxide radicals
, , and , respectivelyScavenging of free radicals[99]
ResveratrolDPPH SC50/26.37/0.849 μmol/dmScavenging of free radicals[101]
Rats with obstructive lung disease50 mg/kgIncreases SOD activity and reduces MDA levels[103]
Hypercholesterolemic ApoE-KO mouse100 mg/kgInhibits the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases
Increases SOD, GPx, and CAT levels