LPS induces BV-2 activation and SH-SY5Y injury in the coculture system, and PTE shows protective effects after LPS stimulation. SH-SY5Y cells were cocultured with BV-2 cells, LPS (100 ng/mL), or both BV-2 cells and LPS for 24 h, separately. (a) The morphology and viability of SH-SY5Y cells were observed under an inverted/phase-contrast microscope or using a CCK-8 assay, respectively. The BV-2 cells were preincubated with vehicle control or PTE (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 μM) for 2 h, followed by LPS stimulation and coculturing with SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h. The viability of (b) SH-SY5Y and (c) BV-2 cells was measured using a CCK-8 assay. (d) The LDH release in supernatants was determined using an LDH release assay and expressed as the percentage of maximum. (e) The apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed using a TUNEL assay. The apoptotic nuclei were stained with TUNEL (green), and all nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). (f) Apoptotic rate was computed as a percentage of the TUNEL- to the DAPI-positive nuclei. Data are shown as ..α, compared with the control. β, compared with the a-BV-2. γ, compared with the PTE 2.5 μM. LPS: lipopolysaccharide; a-BV-2: LPS-activated BV-2 coculture group.
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