PTE reduces inflammatory factors released by LPS-activated BV-2 cells and attenuates the oxidative stress level of SH-SY5Y cells. BV-2 cells were pretreated with vehicle control or PTE (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 μM) for 2 h, followed by LPS stimulation and coculturing with SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h. (a) The ROS in SH-SY5Y cells was stained with DCFH-DA (green), and (b) the level of ROS was computed as the average intracellular fluorescent density. (c) The MDA level, (d) SOD activity, and (e) GSH level in SH-SY5Y cells were assessed using standardized commercial kits, and the (f) TNF-α and (g) IL-6 in supernatants were determined using an ELISA assay. Data are shown as ..α, compared with the control. β, compared with the a-BV-2. γ, compared with the PTE 2.5 μM. δ, compared with the PTE 5.0 μM. LPS: lipopolysaccharide; a-BV-2: LPS-activated BV-2 coculture group; ROS: reactive oxygen species; MDA: malondialdehyde; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione.
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