Short-Chain Fatty Acids Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via GPR43-Mediated Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and NF-κB Signaling
SCFAs prevented the renal dysfunction and kidney injury. Urine ACR (a) of T2D mice were measured every 2 weeks, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (b), serum creatinine (SCr) (c), and serum cystatin C (d) were assayed at the 20th week of the experiment. Histopathological examination of renal tissues was by H&E, PAS, and Masson’s trichrome staining (400x) (e). Mesangial expansion (f), glomerular tuft (g), and the accumulation of collagen (h) were measured. Ac: acetate; Pr: propionate; But: butyrate; compared with the NC group; # compared with the T2D group; & compared with the Ac or Pr group.