Ginseng-Sanqi-Chuanxiong (GSC) Extracts Ameliorate Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Cell Senescence through Regulating Mitophagy via the AMPK Pathway
GSC extracts restore impaired autophagy and mitophagy in HG/PA-induced cellular senescence in HAECs. (a) Representative images of GFP-LC3 expressing HAECs stained with MitoTracker Red after 48 h of treatment. Square scan data of fluorescence intensity in the corresponding images to show the degree of colocalization between LC3 and mitochondria. (b) HAECs were treated with HG/PA for 48 h followed by treatment with 20 μM CCCP for 4 h. The image shows the colocalization of GFP-LC3 with mitochondria (MitoTracker Red) after CCCP treatment. (c) Pearson correlation coefficient shows the degree of colocalization between LC3 and mitochondria (MitoTracker Red). (d) Western blot analysis of PINK1 and Parkin protein expression in cultured HAECs. (e) Image shows the colocalization of Parkin and mitochondria in HAECs. (f, g) Western blot analysis of LC3B-II and p62 in HAECs followed by treatment with or without bafilomycin A1 for 4 h. # and ##, compared with the control group; and , compared with the model (HG/PA) group.