Ginseng-Sanqi-Chuanxiong (GSC) Extracts Ameliorate Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Cell Senescence through Regulating Mitophagy via the AMPK Pathway
GSC extracts regulate mitophagy through the AMPK signaling pathway; pretreatment with compound C (5 μM) for 1 h abolished GSC extract-induced mitophagy in HAECs. (a) AMPK signaling pathway expression in HG/PA-induced senescent HAECs. (b) Western blot analysis of AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR, p-mTOR, p70S6K, and p-p70S6K expression in cultured HAECs after pretreatment with compound C. (c) HAECs were treated with compound C for 48 h followed by treatment with CCCP (20 μM) for 4 h. Image shows the colocalization of GFP-LC3 with mitochondria after treatment with CCCP. Pearson’s coefficient shows the degree of colocalization between LC3 and mitochondria. (d) Western blot analysis of PINK1, Parkin, LC3B-II, and p62 expression in cultured HAECs with compound C for 48 h. (e) Image shows the colocalization of Parkin and mitochondria in HAECs after pretreatment with compound C. # and ##, compared with the control group; and , compared with the model (HG/PA) group.
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