Tribulus terrestris Ameliorates Oxidative Stress-Induced ARPE-19 Cell Injury through the PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway
EE-TT increased the cell viabilities in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells. (a) ARPE-19 cells were treated with or without individual concentrations of H2O2, respectively, for 24 h. (b) ARPE-19 cells were treated with individual concentrations of EE-TT for 24 h. (c) ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with 1 mM H2O2 for 24 h, then cells were treated with individual concentrations of EE-TT for another 24 h. (d) ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with individual concentrations of EE-TT for 4 h, then cells were treated with 1 mM H2O2 for another 24 h. (a–d) The viability of cells was measured by MTS assay; the viability of cells was expressed as a percentage of the control group (nontreated cells). All data are shown as ,,, and vs. the samples of control group (nontreated cells); # vs. the samples treated with H2O2 alone. (e) The cell morphology of ARPE-19 cells (c) was observed under an optic microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TS100, Japan).
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