Targeting the Nrf2/ARE Signalling Pathway to Mitigate Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy: Plausible Role of Hesperetin in Redox Homeostasis
Hesperetin reduces cardiac hypertrophy in rats. (a) Representative images of gross examination of the heart; (b) heart weight to body weight ratio; (c) representative images of Masson trichrome staining, scale bars: 50 μm; heart light-field photomicrographs of Masson’s trichrome-stained sections (40x). Fibrosis is indicated by black arrow marks: (i) control heart shows normal architecture, (ii) isoproterenol-administered rats show moderate to severe fibrosis, (iii) isoproterenol+hesperetin-treated rats show mild fibrosis, and (iv) hesperetin alone-treated rats show no fibrosis. (d) Quantification of fibrosis measured by collagen (hydroxyproline) assay. (e, f) β-MHC mRNA expression levels: L1: marker, L2: control, L3: isoproterenol, L4: isoproterenol+hesperetin, and L5: hesperetin. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of the band intensity, and each experiment conducted three repeats per condition. for each group. Statistical significance (,, and ) was calculated by Student-Newman-Keuls and Tukey post hoc tests. Iso: isoproterenol-administered rats; Iso+Hes: isoproterenol-administered rats pretreated with hesperetin.
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