Blueberry Extracts as a Novel Approach to Prevent Ozone-Induced Cutaneous Inflammasome Activation
Effect of blueberry (BB) extract on ozone modulation of keratinocytes migration, proliferation, and ROS production. (a) Scratch was performed on confluent monolayer of HaCaT cells, and pictures were taken to measure wound area at different time points (0-18-36 h). On the left, depiction of the wound after 0, 18, and 36 h. On the right, quantification of the wound area at each time point via ImageJ. Data are shown as percent of 0 h. (b) Representative depiction of migration experiment performed on HaCaT cells, scale bar 200 μm. Cells were seeded in 8 μm pore size transwells, exposed to O3, and incubated for 0, 3, and 6 h. After fixation, migrated cells were stained with 0.02% Coomassie Blue. On the right, ImageJ quantification of the migrated cells after 0, 3, and 6 h from O3 exposure. Data are shown as average of 6 picture fields (20x magnification). (c) The growth response of HaCaT cells pretreated with BB was assessed after 24 h after O3 exposure by BrdU incorporation. (d) H2O2 production was evaluated via DCF after 1 h upon O3 exposure (1 h at 0.5 ppm) in HaCaT cells pretreated with BB. Data are the results of three independent experiments. air vs. O3, § O3 vs. BBO3 by one-way or two-way ANOVA.
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