Notes: (E) = extent item (amount of time), (I) = intensity item (degree of participation), (S) = skill item (ease of performance). aSome ToP items were scored “not applicable” for some children; as a result, the following ToP items did not have enough data for analysis: Enters (S), Persists (I), Engages in playful mischief or teasing (S), Pretends (S), Creative (I), Negotiates (S), and Clowns or jokes (S). IQR = interquartile range. Item is associated with the following elements of play and playfulness: IMintrinsic motivation, ICinternal control, FCRfreedom from constraints of reality, FRskills related to framing. Highest item score; lowest item score.