The Weight of HLA-DPA1 rs3077 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Prostate Cancer, a Multicenter StudyRead the full article
Prostate Cancer provides a multidisciplinary platform for scientists, surgeons, oncologists and clinicians working on prostate cancer. Research includes diagnosis, surgery, radiotherapy, drug discovery and medical management of the disease.
Prostate Cancer maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Flare after First-Line Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Poor Prognosis in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Second-Generation Androgen Receptor Targeted Therapy
Objectives. To determine whether an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) flare after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with the treatment response in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and predicts the prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Methods. One hundred and nineteen patients diagnosed with metastatic PCa between 2008 and 2017 were retrospectively studied. The ALP flare ratio was calculated as the ratio of ALP levels 1 month after beginning ADT to ALP levels at diagnosis. The association of the ALP flare ratio with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to CRPC treatment (second-generation androgen receptor targeted therapy (ART) or docetaxel), time to CRPC, and overall survival (OS) were investigated. Results. The time to CRPC and OS was significantly longer in patients with an ALP flare ratio less than 1.33 compared to a ratio more than 1.33. No difference in PSA response was seen regarding the ALP flare ratio in both ART and docetaxel treatment. Second-generation ART-treated patients with a low ALP flare ratio showed longer OS than those with a higher ALP flare ratio (). However, no difference was seen between a high and low ALP flare ratio () in docetaxel-treated patients. The ALP flare ratio was the most significant prognostic factor for OS (). Conclusions. A higher ALP flare ratio after first-line ADT was a significant prognostic factor in metastatic PCa, especially in patients treated with second-generation ART for CRPC. Chemotherapy for patients with a higher ALP flare ratio 1 month after induction of ADT may be a clinically relevant decision.
Predictive and Prognostic Role of Lipocalin-2 Expression in Prostate Cancer and Its Association with Gleason Score
Lipocalin-2 has an important role in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. However, its role in prostate cancer remains unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the expression level of lipocalin-2 in human prostate cancer tissues and to evaluate the relationship between its expression level and clinicopathologic parameters including response to docetaxel treatment, Gleason score, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively analyzed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 33 metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients whose clinical outcomes had been tracked after docetaxel treatment. The expression status of lipocalin-2 was defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the anti-lipocalin-2 antibody. Lipocalin-2 was highly expressed in 36% of the examined specimens. There was no significant correlation between high lipocalin-2 expression and docetaxel response (). High lipocalin-2 expression was signiﬁcantly associated with a higher Gleason score (). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis failed to show a significant correlation between expression levels of lipocalin-2 and both OS and PFS although patients with high lipocalin-2 levels had a numerically shorter PFS and OS time compared to patients with low levels. Consequently, it is clear that further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive and prognostic role of lipocalin-2 in prostate cancer patients.
A Multicentric, Retrospective Efficacy and Safety Study of Nanosomal Docetaxel Lipid Suspension in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension (NDLS, DoceAqualip) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Materials and Methods. In this multicenter, retrospective study, we analyzed the medical charts of mCRPC patients, who were treated with NDLS administered as 2-weekly (50 mg/m2) or 3-weekly regimens (75 mg/m2). The study endpoints were prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (>50% PSA decline from baseline), PSA progression (PSA increase from baseline beyond 12 weeks: ≥25% and ≥2 ng/mL), median PSA decline, and time-to-treatment failure (TTF). Overall survival (OS) and safety were also evaluated. Results. Data of 24 patients with mCRPC were analyzed in this study. NDLS was administered as a 2-weekly regimen in 37.5% (9/24; all first-line) patients and as a 3-weekly regimen in 62.5% patients (15/24; first-line: 20% (3/15), second-line: 80% (12/15)). Overall, PSA response was reported in 66.7% (16/24) patients. The PSA response was 77.8% (7/9 patients) in the 2-weekly group and 60% (9/15 patients) in the 3-weekly group. The median decline in PSA was 96.31% in the 2-weekly group and 83.29% in the 3-weekly group; the median TTF was 6.7 and 6.5 months in the 2 weekly group and 3-weekly group, respectively. The median OS was 14.6 months (follow-up: 5.5–25.8 months) in the 2-weekly group whereas it was not reached in the 3-weekly group (follow-up: 7.9–15.6 months). The most common hematological AEs were anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia whereas nausea, weakness, constipation, vomiting, and diarrhea were the most common (≥10%) nonhematological AEs. Overall, NDLS treatment was well tolerated without any new safety concerns. Conclusions. Nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension (2-weekly or 3-weekly) was effective and well tolerated in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Clinical, Histopathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Patients with Prostate Cancer in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Introduction. Prostate cancer is currently a public health problem with a frequency that varies from country to country. This study aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological and outcome features of prostate cancer in Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Materials and Methods. This was a descriptive longitudinal study of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the University Clinics of Lubumbashi. The study period was 3 years (2017 to 2019). Parameters studied were age and clinical, biological (PSA level, prostatic specific antigen), histopathological, and outcome features. Results. The mean age of patients was 68.7 years (range: 47 and 90 years). The 60 to 69 age group was the most affected (43.18%). Elderly subjects (≥60 years old) represented 89.77% of the cases (n = 79). Voiding disorders were the main reason for consultation in 55.68% of the cases. The mean PSA level was 133.7 ng/ml (range: 4 and 1564.5 ng/ml) at diagnosis and 125.4 ng/ml after 3 months of follow-up (range: 0.16 and 1782.1 ng/ml). Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histological type (100%). In prognosis, 31.82% of patients had a Gleason score greater than 7 and 59.10% had a high risk at the D’Amico risk classification for Prostate Cancer. Hormone therapy was administered alone in 75% of the cases and in combination with pulpectomy in 13.64% of the cases. The 3-year overall survival was 56.82%. Conclusion. Prostate cancer is frequent and has a poor outcome in our country. The establishment of an individual screening policy would be an undeniable advantage in improving the prognosis.
Somatic Mitochondrial DNA Point Mutations Used as Biomarkers to Demonstrate Genomic Heterogeneity in Primary Prostate Cancer
Primary prostate tumor heterogeneity is poorly understood, leaving research efforts with challenges regarding the initiation and advancement of the disease. The growth of tumor cells is accompanied by mutations in nuclear and in mitochondrial genomes. Thus, mitochondrial DNA mutations may be used as tumor cell markers. By the use of laser capture microdissection coupled with assays for mitochondrial point mutation detection, mtDNA mutations were used to trace mutated cells at a histological level. Point mutations in mtDNA were determined in 12 primary prostate cancers. The tumors represent different pathology-prognostic grade groups. Known mutational hotspots of the mtDNA were scanned for heteroplasmy. All specimens with mtDNA heteroplasmy were subsequently subsampled by laser capture microdissection. From a total number of 1728 microsamples, mitochondrial DNA target sequences were amplified and base substitutions detected by cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used as a quantitative assay to determine the relative mtDNA copy number of 12 tumors studied, represented by two samples from each (N = 24); a high degree (75%) demonstrated tumor specimen heterogeneity. A grid of 96 spots isolated by laser capture microdissection demonstrated interfocal sample heterogeneity and increased the limit of detection. The spots demonstrated a wide range of mutant fractions from 0 to 100% mutant copies. The mitochondrial DNA copy number in the samples was determined by real-time PCR. No correlation between copy number and pathology-prognostic grade groups was observed. Somatic mitochondrial DNA point mutations represent traceable biomarkers demonstrating heterogeneity in primary prostate cancer. Mutations can be detected in areas before changes in tissue histopathology are evident to the pathologist.
Interleukin-10 Induces Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers and PDL1 in Prostate Cancer Cells
Interleukin-10 (IL10) is best studied for its inhibitory action on immune cells and ability to suppress an antitumour immune response. But IL10 also exerts direct effects on nonimmune cells such as prostate cancer epithelial cells. Elevated serum levels of IL10 observed in prostate and other cancer patients are associated with poor prognosis. After first-line androgen-deprivation therapy, prostate cancer patients are treated with androgen receptor antagonists such as enzalutamide to inhibit androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell growth. However, development of resistance inevitably occurs and this is associated with tumour differentiation to more aggressive forms such as a neuroendocrine phenotype characterized by expression of neuron specific enolase and synaptophysin. We found that treatment of prostate cancer cell lines in vitro with IL10 or enzalutamide induced markers of neuroendocrine differentiation and inhibited androgen receptor reporter activity. Both also upregulated the levels of PDL1, which could promote tumour survival in vivo through its interaction with the immune cell inhibitory receptor PD1 to suppress antitumour immunity. These findings suggest that IL10’s direct action on prostate cancer cells could contribute to prostate cancer progression independent of IL10’s suppression of host immune cells.