Prostate Cancer
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Synthetic Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Prostate

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Research Article

Association of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Insertion/287 bp Deletion Polymorphisms and Proliferative Prostatic Diseases among Lebanese Men

Background. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I) and 287 bp Alu repeat DNA fragment deletion (D) polymorphisms have been indicated in various cancers. Here, we investigated I/D polymorphisms in prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) among Lebanese men. Methods. Blood DNA extracted from 69 control subjects, 69 subjects with clinically confirmed PCa, and 69 subjects with clinical BPH, all the subjects were aged 50 years or older, was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction. The PCR products were resolved in polyacrylamide gels to determine II, ID, and DD genotypes. The odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and values of the allele frequencies and genotype ratios were calculated for establishing possible association of the alleles and/or genotypes and PCa and/or BPH. Results. The proportions of II, ID, and DD genotypes were significantly different from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for BPH and PCa groups (but not the control group), mostly due to overabundance of the ID genotypes. There was no significant difference in the I and D allele frequencies between the control groups and the affected groups. The ratio of (DD + ID)/II is significantly lower among the control group compared to the BPH group (RR = 8.92, ), and the ratio of ID/(DD + II) is significantly lower among the control group compared to the affected groups (RR = 1.99, ). Conclusions. Our data indicate that the D allele of the I/D polymorphisms of the ACE gene is associated with increased risk of BPH, and the ID genotype is a risk factor for both BPH and PCa among Lebanese males.

Research Article

Detection of Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 and Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Candidate in Non-DRE Urine Improves Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Population

Although prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, it also leads to high incidence of negative biopsies and the diagnosis of clinically low-risk prostate cancer and the subsequent overtreatment. It remains an unmet need to discover new biomarkers in order to defer the unnecessary biopsies in clinical practice. In this study, we described a new method, LBXexo score, to measure the urine exosomal PCA3/PRAC expression from non-DRE urine as a noninvasive diagnosis to improve the detection rate in Chinese population with a low serum PSA level. First-voided urine samples were collected to isolate exosomes, and exosomal RNAs of PCA3 and PRAC were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. A significant increase in exoPCA3/PRAC was observed in both any-grade and high-grade prostate cancer groups when compared with the biopsy-negative group. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the LBXexo score significantly improved diagnostic performance in predicting biopsy results, with AUCs of 0.723 () and 0.736 () for any-grade and high-grade (GS ≥ 7) prostate cancer, respectively. For high-grade cancer, LBXexo had the negative and positive predictive values of 100% and 27.59%, respectively, and could potentially avoid unnecessary biopsy. This is the first report in Chinese population that demonstrates the predictive value of the exosomal expression of PCA3 and PRAC derived from non-DRE urine in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes. It could be used in clinical practice to make a better informed biopsy decision and avoid unnecessary biopsies in Chinese population.

Research Article

Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression in Prostate Cancer Patients and Their Spouses: An Unaddressed Reality

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected anxiety or depression in prostate cancer patients and their spouses, as well as factors involved in its onset. Materials and Methods. A prospective study of 184 patients and 137 spouses evaluated in our hospital during 2019 using the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9). This study provides an internal validity assessment of the scales and their correlation (alpha and rho coefficients; index ). The contributions of age, education level, months after diagnosis, pain, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, stage of the disease and treatment performed to the positivity of the questionnaires were studied using the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney and chi-square tests. Results. The prevalence of anxiety was 10.9% (MAX-PC) and 28.3% (MAX-PC-PSA). The HADS-A questionnaire indicated pathology in 14.1% of the patients and 16.05% of the spouses. Depression was detected in 7% (HADS-D) and 9.2% (PHQ-9) of patients as well as in 8.8% (HADS-D) and 16.05% (PHQ-9) of their spouses. The greatest concordance between men and women was with the PHQ-9 (Spearman’s rho: 0.78; ). Education level is significantly related to the presence of anxiety and depression, regardless of the questionnaire applied. The probability of detecting pathology in the MAX-PC varied from 6% in patients with elementary education to 23.5% in university students (). The greatest differences were detected when applying the PHQ-9 to patients (4% pathological, elementary education vs. 35.3% pathological, university education). Our study confirms the lack of a relationship between rates of anxiety and depression and factors such as PSA level, age of the patient and number of comorbidities. Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of unsuspected anxiety and depression in patients with prostate cancer and their wives. Education level correlates with such prevalence.

Research Article

Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival of Patients with Prostate Cancer in Kyadondo County, Uganda

Background. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men globally. A few studies that have been done in Uganda on survival of patients with prostate cancer indicate that, the overall survival of patients with prostate cancer in Uganda is poor. The aim of this study was to determine the 3-year overall survival rate of a cohort of patients with prostate cancer residing in Kyadondo County who were diagnosed from 2012 to 2014. The secondary objective was to correlate the overall survival with the clinicopathological prognostic factors. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study which involved 136 patients who were diagnosed histologically with prostate cancer at the department of pathology between 2012 and 2014. The cases were registered at the Kampala cancer registry and followed up to 31st December 2017. Data analysis was done using STATA version 12.0. The Kaplan-Meir curves were used for analysis of the 3-year overall survival rate. Hazard ratio (HR) and Log-rank test at 95% confidence interval under Cox-regression model were used to evaluate the effect of the covariates on the 3-year overall survival rate. was considered statistically significant. Results. More than half of the cases, 55.9% () had Gleason score >8. Most of the patients, 67.7% () had advanced disease at diagnosis. The 3-year overall survival rate was 67.6% with median survival of 36.5 months and range of 0–65 months. Clinical stage of the patients (HR = 1.65, ), Gleason score (HR = 1.88, ), and lymphovascular invasion (HR = 0.37, ) were the independent predictors of the 3-year overall survival rate in this study. Conclusion. The 3-year overall survival of prostate cancer patients in Uganda is poor. Most of the patients with are diagnosed with advanced clinical stages (stage III and IV). The Gleason score, clinical stage and lymphovascular invasion can powerfully predict independently the overall survival of patients with prostate cancer. This implies that the Gleason score, clinical stage and lymphovascular invasion may be used to predict the overall survival of patients with prostate cancer even prior prostatectomy.

Research Article

Epidemiological and Economic Evaluation of a Pilot Prostate Cancer Screening Program

Background. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the sixth most common killer among men worldwide (Aubry et al., 2013). This research was motivated by the fact that PCa screening continues to be a controversial topic in the Kazakh medical community. This study aimed at description of how newly diagnosed PCa patients are managed in Pavlodar region of the Kazakhstan Republic and at presentation of a budget impact analysis (BIA) for PCa screening program. Also, we aimed to provide a comparative analysis of pricing system on medical services applied in both private and public healthcare sectors of the Kazakhstan Republic. Methods. New cases of PCa have been retrospectively analyzed for the period from January 2013 to December 2017 based on the information obtained from information system “Policlinic” maintained by the Pavlodar regional branch of the Republican Center for Electronic Health and from Cancer Registry of Pavlodar Regional Oncology Center. All data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 20.0 software. Results. The mean age of PCa patients was 68.34 years (SD = 8.559). The government of Kazakhstan invested 20,437,000 KZT (Kazakhstani tenge) in 2017 equivalently 61,188 USD—to fund a pilot study for examination of 9638 men. From 2013 to 2017, out of 49,334 men residing in Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan 1,248 men were diagnosed with prostate diseases, including 130 PCa cases. The PCa detection rate was equal to two cases per month. Only 22.8% of all PCa cases identified in the region within specified time period were revealed as a result of the government-funded PCa screening program. The average prostate cancer detection rate among the target group of Pavlodar region within the period of 5 years was equal to 0.23%. Conclusion. Based on the fact that the PCa screening program failed to enable adequate detection of new PCa cases, we would not recommend to continue this type of screening unless it is undergone careful revision and replanning.

Research Article

Impact and Outcomes of Pretreatment Total Serum Testosterone on Localized Prostate Cancer Patients

Purpose. To investigate how pretreatment testosterone levels correlate with progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival in a propensity-adjusted localized prostate cancer population. Methods. Men diagnosed with clinical NCCN-risk stratified very-low, low, intermediate, high, and/or very-high risk prostate cancer who had a baseline total serum testosterone level≥100 ng/dl measured within the 100 days preceding the first definitive therapy were identified from our prospectively gathered institutional database. Cohorts below (100–239 ng/dl), within (240–593 ng/dl), or above (594 + ng/dl) one standard deviation from the mean testosterone level (416 ng/dl) were used for comparison. Progression-free, metastasis-free, and overall survival were evaluated. A separate cohort of men not receiving ADT was used to evaluate testosterone recovery after various treatment modalities (surgery, external beam radiation, brachytherapy, or combined EBRT + Brachy). Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the low, average, and high testosterone cohorts for PFS, MFS, or OS. In men not using ADT, there were no statistically significant changes in testosterone levels 1 year after therapy, regardless of therapy type. Conclusion. In men with serum testosterone levels >=100 ng/dl at diagnosis, baseline testosterone does not impact PFS, MFS, or OS. Recovery of testosterone back to baseline is expected for men undergoing either surgery, external beam or brachytherapy, or combined modality radiation when not using ADT.

Prostate Cancer
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