Table 1: Differentially expressed genes reported to be prognostic for prostate cancer.

Target/functionRole in prostate cancerPrognostic role

PTEN [11]Regulator of PI3K pathway, cell cycle, tumor suppressor, targets miR21Decreased invasion, migrationGleason score, stage, BCR, metastasis

TMPRSS2-ERG [12, 13] Trans membrane protease regulated by androgen receptor, fuses with ETS transcription factorsIncreased tumor genesis, androgen independenceDiagnosis, androgen independence

Myc [14]Transcription factorIncreased proliferationProgression, survival, BCR after radiation

TGF-β [15]Stops cell proliferation, stimulates differentiationIncreased cell growth, angiogenesis, suppress immune cellsCancer-specific survival

IL-1 [16]Activates NFKβIncreased tumor genesisProgression

IL-6 [17]Paracrine and anticrime growth stimulatorIncreased proliferationProgression

IL-7 [15]Inhibits TGFβ productionDecreased results in immune resistanceCancer-specific survival

CCL-2 [18]Chemokine stimulates inflammatory cell chemo taxisIncreased cell growth, invasion, metastasisTumor volume, Gleason score

NPY [19]Neurotransmitter, regulates cell growth via Y1-RDecreased cell growth, metastasisD’Amico risk group, BCR

SMAD4 [20]Modulates TGFβ family of genesDecreased differentiation, apoptosisBCR and metastasis

Ki-67 [21]Cell cycle regulationDecreased proliferationGleason score, BCR

P53 [21]Cell cycle regulationIncreased differentiationGleason score, survival

P16 [22]Regulation of several targets (CDKN2a, TMS1)Decreased proliferationGleason score

P21 [23]Regulates cell growthDecreased proliferationBCR after surgery

BCL2 [24, 25]Regulates apoptosis, affects caspases, mitochondriaIncreased cell survivalBCR after surgery and radiation

BAX [26]Proapoptotic; BCL2 gene familyDecreased cell survivalBCR after radiation

VEGF [27, 28]AngiogenesisIncreased invasionGleason Score, survival, BCR

E-cadherin [29]Intracellular adhesion in presence of calciumDecreased invasion, migrationGleason score, progression, survival

EZH2 [30, 31]Targets a methyltransferase; regulates tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinaseDecreased invasion, migrationGleason score

TRAIL [32]Stromal TRAIL stimulates apoptosisDecreased stromal expression-cell survivalRecurrence-free survival

PLA2G7 [33, 34]Target of ERG, regulates actin expressionIncreased migration and invasionGleason score, metastasis

Nukeβ [35]Regulates transcription, inflammation. Inversely expressed with CD10Unregulated cell survivalBCR after prostatectomy