Table 4: Eleven studies of prognostic factors after biochemical failure since 2000*.

Authors Type of Series Number in series EndpointPretreatment variablesVariables at biochemical failure PSA at STI ( g/L)Other prognostic variables
Gleason scoreClinical stageTTBF yearsPSADT months

Sandler et al. (2000) [5]Single hospital, radiotherapy, retrospective154Survival
(PC specific and overall)
D’Amico et al. (2002) [6]Single hospital, radiotherapy, retrospective381Survival
(PC specific)
Moul (2003) [7]Community database, prostatectomy1352Survival
>7≤1≤12≤5, ≤10
Okotie et al. (2004) [8]Single hospital, prostatectomy, retrospective126Metastases<6
Stephenson et al. (2007) [9]Multihospital, prostatectomy and radiotherapy, retrospective1540PSA progression>7Positive margins≤10Continuous
Freedland et al. (2005) [10]Single hospital, prostatectomy, retrospective379Survival
(PC specific)
Dotan et al. (2005) [11]Single hospital, prostatectomy, retrospective239Bone metastasesContinuousContinuous
(at time of scan)
Slovin et al. (2005) [12] Single hospital, prostatectomy, retrospective148Metastases>7≥T3ContinuousContinuous
Zhou et al. (2005) [13]Community databases, prostatectomy and radiotherapy, retrospective1159Survival
(PC specific)
(radiotherapy alone)
Tollefson et al. (2007) [14]Single hospital, prostatectomy, retrospective1064Survival (overall) metastases<12
Buyyounouski et al. (2008) [15]Single hospital, radiotherapy,
(PC specific) Metastases
> 6 (metastases only)<1.5NSPSA nadir <2  g/L (metastases only)

NS: nonsignificant; TTBF: time to biochemical failure; PSADT: PSA doubling time; STI: secondary therapeutic intervention; PC: prostate cancer.
*Only the most recent update of each series is included in the table.
Review article.