Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Prostate Cancer
Volume 2013, Article ID 717080, 5 pages
Research Article

Quantifying the Ki-67 Heterogeneity Profile in Prostate Cancer

1UC Irvine School of Medicine, 1001 Health Sciences Road, 252 Irvine Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3950, USA
2UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA Health System, 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite B265, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6951, USA
3Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, 8-684 Factor Building, Box 951781, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732, USA
4Department of Pathology, UCLA Health Systems, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, CHS 14-112, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732, USA

Received 15 June 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013

Academic Editor: James L. Gulley

Copyright © 2013 Shane Mesko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: Ki-67 is a robust predictive/prognostic marker in prostate cancer; however, tumor heterogeneity in prostate biopsy samples is not well studied. Methods: Using an MRI/US fusion device, biopsy cores were obtained systematically and by targeting when indicated by MRI. Prostate cores containing cancer from 77 consecutive men were analyzed. The highest Ki-67 was used to determine interprostatic variation. Ki-67 range (highest minus lowest) was used to determine intraprostatic and intralesion variation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were evaluated in relation to Ki-67. Results: Interprostatic Ki-67 mean ± standard deviation (SD) values for NCCN low (L), intermediate (I), and high (H) risk patients were 5.1 ± 3.8%, 7.4 ± 6.8%, and 12.0 ± 12.4% (ANOVA ). Intraprostatic mean ± SD Ki-67 ranges in L, I, and H risk patients were 2.6 ± 3.6%, 5.3 ± 6.8%, and 10.9 ± 12.3% (ANOVA ). Intralesion mean ± SD Ki-67 ranges in L, I, and H risk patients were 1.1 ± 0.9%, 5.2 ± 7.9%, and 8.1 ± 10.8% (ANOVA ). ADC values at Ki-67 > and <7.1% were 860 ± 203 and 1036 ± 217, respectively ( ). Conclusions: High risk patients have significantly higher inter- and intraprostatic Ki-67 heterogeneity. This needs to be considered when utilizing Ki-67 clinically.