Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Prostate Cancer
Volume 2015, Article ID 624736, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/624736
Review Article

Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
2Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10467, USA

Received 1 October 2015; Accepted 15 November 2015

Academic Editor: Robert Gardiner

Copyright © 2015 Matthew Sean Peach et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Trotti, A. D. Colevas, A. Setser et al., “CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment,” Seminars in Radiation Oncology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 176–181, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Cox, J. Stetz, and T. F. Pajak, “Toxicity criteria of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) and the european organization for research and treatment of cancer (RTOG),” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1341–1346, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. P. Tagkalidis and J. J. Tjandra, “Chronic radiation proctitis,” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 230–237, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Ohri, A. P. Dicker, and T. N. Showalter, “Late toxicity rates following definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer,” Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 6373–6380, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. A. Viani, E. J. Stefano, and S. L. Afonso, “Higher-than-conventional radiation doses in localized prostate cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 1405–1418, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Michalski, K. Bae, M. Roach et al., “Long-term toxicity following 3D conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer from the rtog 9406 phase i/ii dose escalation study,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 14–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. A. Kuban, S. L. Tucker, L. Dong et al., “Long-term results of the M. D. Anderson randomized dose-escalation trial for prostate cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. H. Katsanos, E. Briasoulis, P. Tsekeris et al., “Randomized phase II exploratory study of prophylactic amifostine in cancer patients who receive radical radiotherapy to the pelvis,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 29, article 68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Pinkawa, N. E. Corral, M. Caffaro et al., “Application of a spacer gel to optimize three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 436–441, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Dörr and J. H. Hendry, “Consequential late effects in normal tissues,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 223–231, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 264–269, W64, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. G. C. Barnett, G. De Meerleer, S. L. Gulliford, M. R. Sydes, R. M. Elliott, and D. P. Dearnaley, “The impact of clinical factors on the development of late radiation toxicity: results from the medical research council rt01 trial (isrctn47772397),” Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 613–624, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Arcangeli, J. Fowler, S. Gomellini et al., “Acute and late toxicity in a randomized trial of conventional versus hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 1013–1021, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Pinkawa, R. Holy, M. D. Piroth et al., “Consequential late effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer—a prospective longitudinal quality of life study,” Radiation Oncology, vol. 5, article 27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Kertesz, M. K. A. Herrmann, A. Zapf et al., “Effect of a prostaglandin—given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis—on late rectal toxicity. Results of a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study,” Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, vol. 185, no. 9, pp. 596–602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Guckenberger, S. Ok, B. Polat, R. A. Sweeney, and M. Flentje, “Toxicity after intensity-modulated, image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer,” Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, vol. 186, pp. 535–543, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  17. G. Fellin, C. Fiorino, T. Rancati et al., “Clinical and dosimetric predictors of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiation for localized prostate cancer: results of a large multicenter observational study,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 197–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. C. Koper, P. Jansen, W. van Putten et al., “Gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary morbidity after 3D conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer: observations of a randomized trial,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. C. O'Brien, C. I. Franklin, M. G. Poulsen, D. J. Joseph, N. S. Spry, and J. W. Denham, “Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial—Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 442–449, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Goineau, V. Marchand, J. Rigaud et al., “Prospective evaluation of quality of life 54 months after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer,” Radiation Oncology, vol. 8, article 53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. D. Heemsbergen, S. T. H. Peeters, P. C. M. Koper, M. S. Hoogeman, and J. V. Lebesque, “Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: consequential late damage,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Liu, T. Pickles, A. Agranovich et al., “Impact of neoadjuvant androgen ablation and other factors on late toxicity after external beam prostate radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Zilli, S. Jorcano, M. Rouzaud et al., “Twice-weekly hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer with low-risk nodal involvement: toxicity and outcome from a dose escalation pilot study,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 382–389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Fiorica, M. Berretta, C. Colosimo et al., “Safety and efficacy of radiotherapy treatment in elderly patients with localized prostate cancer: a retrospective analysis,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 277–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Ballar, M. D. Salvo, G. Lo, G. Ferrari, D. BeIdi, and M. Krengli, “Conformal radiotherapy of clinically localized prostate cancer: analysis of rectal and urinary toxicity and correlation with dose-volume parameters,” Tumori, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 160–168, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H.-K. G. Shu, T. T. Lee, E. Vigneault et al., “Toxicity following high-dose three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer,” Urology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 102–107, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. Cahlon, M. J. Zelefsky, A. Shippy et al., “Ultra-high dose (86.4 gy) imrt for localized prostate cancer: toxicity and biochemical outcomes,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 330–337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. J. Zelefsky, E. J. Levin, M. Hunt et al., “Incidence of late rectal and urinary toxicities after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 1124–1129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. J. Zelefsky, M. A. Nedelka, Z.-L. Arican et al., “Combined brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: reduced morbidity with an intraoperative brachytherapy planning technique and supplemental intensity-modulated radiation therapy,” Brachytherapy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. A. Jereczek-Fossa, D. Zerini, C. Fodor et al., “Correlation between acute and late toxicity in 973 prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. W. Denham, M. Hauer-Jensen, T. Kron, and C. W. Langberg, “Treatment-time-dependence models of early and delayed radiation injury in rat small intestine,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 871–887, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Campostrini, R. Musola, G. Marchiaro, F. Lonardi, and G. Verlato, “Role of early proctoscopy in predicting late symptomatic proctitis after external radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 1031–1037, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Kang, M. Chun, Y.-M. Jin et al., “A rat model for radiation-induced proctitis,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 682–689, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Z. Symon, Y. Goldshmidt, O. Picard et al., “A murine model for the study of molecular pathogenesis of radiation proctitis,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 242–250, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Hanson, R. MacDonald, and A. Shaukat, “Endoscopic and medical therapy for chronic radiation proctopathy: a systematic review,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1081–1095, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. K. Shadad, F. J. Sullivan, J. D. Martin, and L. J. Egan, “Gastrointestinal radiation injury: prevention and treatment,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 199–208, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. J. Gibson, D. M. K. Keefe, R. V. Lalla et al., “Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 313–326, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Ali and I. Habib, “Pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of radiation colitis, enteritis and proctitis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. D. Kiliç, I. Egehan, S. Özenirler, and A. Dursun, “Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of sulphasalazine in preventing acute gastrointestinal complications due to radiotherapy,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 125–129, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Henriksson, L. Franzen, and B. Littbrand, “Effects of sucralfate on acute and late bowel discomfort following radiotherapy of pelvic cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 969–975, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. C. O'Brien, C. I. Franklin, K. B. G. Dear et al., “A phase III double-blind randomised study of rectal sucralfate suspension in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. D. Jahraus, D. Bettenhausen, U. Malik, M. Sellitti, and W. H. St. Clair, “Prevention of acute radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis by balsalazide: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in prostate cancer patients,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1483–1487, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Sanguineti, P. Franzone, M. Marcenaro, F. Foppiano, and V. Vitale, “Sucralfate versus mesalazine versus hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute radiation proctitis during conformal radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. A randomized study,” Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, vol. 179, no. 7, pp. 464–470, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Fuccio, A. Guido, L. Laterza et al., “Randomised clinical trial: preventive treatment with topical rectal beclomethasone dipropionate reduces post-radiation risk of bleeding in patients irradiated for prostate cancer,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 628–637, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Stefanelli, G. Pascale, E. Rainieri et al., “Can we decrease the acute proctitis in prostate cancer patients using hyaluronic acid during radiation therapy: a prospective historically controlled clinical study,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 639–645, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. R. Kouvaris, V. Kouloulias, E. Malas et al., “Amifostine as radioprotective agent for the rectal mucosa during irradiation of pelvic tumors. A phase II randomized study using various toxicity scales and rectosigmoidoscopy,” Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 167–174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. L. Simone, C. Ménard, B. P. Soule et al., “Intrarectal amifostine during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer produces significant improvements in quality of life measured by epic score,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 90–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. Vuong, K. Waschke, T. Niazi et al., “The value of botox-a in acute radiation proctitis: results from a phase I/II study using a three-dimensional scoring system,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1505–1511, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. N. J. T. van Lin, J. Kristinsson, M. E. P. Philippens et al., “Reduced late rectal mucosal changes after prostate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with endorectal balloon as observed in repeated endoscopy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 799–811, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. J. Smeenk, B. S. Teh, E. B. Butler, E. N. J. T. van Lin, and J. H. A. M. Kaanders, “Is there a role for endorectal balloons in prostate radiotherapy? A systematic review,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 277–282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Eckert, S. Alloussi, F. Paulsen et al., “Prospective evaluation of a hydrogel spacer for rectal separation in dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer,” BMC Cancer, vol. 13, article 27, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. R. Noyes, C. C. Hosford, and S. E. Schultz, “Human collagen injections to reduce rectal dose during radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1918–1922, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Melchert, E. Gez, G. Bohlen et al., “Interstitial biodegradable balloon for reduced rectal dose during prostate radiotherapy: results of a virtual planning investigation based on the pre- and post-implant imaging data of an international multicenter study,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 210–214, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus