Article of the Year 2021
Staging Parkinson’s Disease Combining Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms Correlates with Disability and Quality of LifeRead the full article
Parkinson’s Disease publishes research related to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cellular, molecular and neurophysiology, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Chief Editor Dr Cristine Alves da Costa is based at Centre National de la Research Scientifique, France. Her research is focuses on Parkinson’s molecular and cell biology.
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Like a Wave in Its Variable Shape, Breadth, and Depth: A Qualitative Interview Study of Experiences of Daytime Sleepiness in People with Parkinson’s Disease
Introduction. Daytime sleepiness is a common nonmotor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is associated with decreased quality of life and perceived health. However, experiences of daytime sleepiness in people with PD have not been explored. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of daytime sleepiness in people with PD. Materials and Methods. Five women and seven men (42–82 years) with PD for 1.5 to 21 years and excessive daytime sleepiness (i.e., a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) participated in the study. Data were collected through individual, semistructured, face-to-face interviews and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes of the experience of daytime sleepiness were revealed: (1) not an isolated phenomenon, (2) something to struggle against or accept, and (3) something beyond sleepiness. Conclusion. Daytime sleepiness is a complex nonmotor symptom in PD which manifests itself in several ways. Some experiences are similar, for instance, the attribution of daytime sleepiness to PD and its medical treatment. Differences depend on how sleepiness manifests itself, affects the person, and impacts daily life, as well as whether it causes feelings of embarrassment. Some participants needed to struggle against daytime sleepiness most of the time, and others had found a way to handle it, for example, with physical activity. However, sleepiness may also be used to benefit the person, for example, if they allow themselves to take a power nap to regain energy. The health care professionals can easily underestimate or misinterpret the prevalence and burden of daytime sleepiness because people with PD may describe daytime sleepiness as tiredness, drowsiness, or feeling exhausted, not as sleepiness.
Parkinsonics: A Randomized, Blinded, Cross-Over Trial of Group Singing for Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms in Idiopathic Parkinson Disease
Introduction. Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently causes communication difficulties due to various voice impairments and there are few treatment options for vocal/communication complaints. We assessed the effects of weekly group singing on PD patients’ objective vocal and motoric function, cognition, mood, self-efficacy, and quality of life. Methods. Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to either a singing group or a facilitated discussion group weekly over 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, participants crossed over for an additional 12 weeks. Evaluations were performed at baseline and every six weeks for 30 weeks. Objective voice measures included volume/loudness (decibels), held vowel duration, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Additional outcome measures included patient-centered quality of life, voice-related quality of life, MDS-UPDRS, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and questionnaires assessing depression, self-efficacy, and overall well-being. Results. Twenty-six participants (16 M/10F; Hoehn & Yahr stage 2.3 (range 2–3); and age 68.6 (55–89)) completed the study. Across participants in both groups (intention-to-treat analyses), there was significant improvement from baseline in average loudness on the Cookie Theft picture description at 24 weeks (end of interventions), corresponding with improved minimal reading volumes at 24 weeks and 30 weeks (end of study). Similarly, there were improvements in minimal loudness on Rainbow passage reading at 24 and 30 weeks. There were improvements observed in the Emotional Well-Being (mean delta −12.7 points, ) and Body Discomfort (mean delta −18.6 points, ) domains of the PDQ-39 from baseline to week 24 in the overall cohort and greater improvement in the Communication domain for Group S than Group D after 12 weeks of singing (delta −12.9 points, ). Baseline differences between the participant groups (age, gender, Hoehn & Yahr stage, and several voice loudness measures) and observed improvements during the weekly discussion group period limited our ability to attribute all of the above results specifically to singing (per-protocol analyses). No significant changes in other assessed outcome measures were found. Conclusions. Weekly group singing may improve some aspects of conversational voice volume and quality of life in PD. Some improvements were sustained at least six weeks after interventions ended. Further investigations of the mechanism of benefit and randomized controlled studies (without crossover) to assess the longitudinal effects of singing in PD are necessary.
MAO-B Polymorphism Associated with Progression in a Chinese Parkinson’s Disease Cohort but Not in the PPMI Cohort
Introduction. Genetic factors play an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. However, the genetic contribution to progression in Chinese PD patients has rarely been studied. This study investigated genetic associations with progression based on 30 PD risk loci common in a longitudinal cohort of Chinese PD patients and the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) cohort. Methods. PD patients from the true world (TW) Chinese PD longitudinal cohort and the PPMI cohort with demographic information and assessment scales were assessed. A panel containing 30 PD risk single nucleotide polymorphisms was tested. Progression rates of each scale were derived from random-effect slope values of mixed-effects regression models. Progression rates of multiple assessments were combined by using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive scores for composite, motor, and nonmotor progression. The association of genetic polymorphism and separate scales or PCA progression was analysed via linear regression. Results. In the Chinese PD cohort, MAOB rs1799836 was associated with progression based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the top 3 principal components (PCs) of nonmotor PCA and PC1 of the composite PCA. In the PPMI cohort, both MDS-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale II and motor PC1 progression were associated with RIT2 rs12456492. The PARK16 haplotype was associated with Geriatric Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults progression, and the SNCA haplotype was associated with the Hoehn-Yahr staging progression and motor PC1 progression. Ethnicity-stratified analysis showed that the association between MAOB rs1799836 and PD progression may be specific to Asian or Chinese patients. Conclusion. MAOB rs1799836 was associated with the progression of nonmotor symptoms, especially cognitive impairment, and the composite progression of motor and nonmotor symptoms within our Chinese PD cohort. The RIT2 rs12456492 and SNCA haplotypes were associated with motor function decline, and the PARK16 haplotype was associated with progression in mood in the PPMI cohort.
How Cognitive Reserve should Influence Rehabilitation Choices using Virtual Reality in Parkinson’s Disease
Virtual reality (VR) is used in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in several studies. In VR trials, the motor, physical characteristics, and the degree of the disease are often well defined, while PD cognitive reserve is not. This systematic review was performed to define a cognitive profile for patients with PD who could best benefit from using VR to enhance functional motor aspects during rehabilitation. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Sciences databases were analysed to identify randomized clinical trials (RCT) and randomized pilot trials that addressed the rehabilitation of motor symptoms in subjects with PD using VR. The included studies used Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to evaluate the cognitive aspect. Only articles written in English and with full texts were considered. The risk of bias from all included studies was assessed based on the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the PRISMA guideline was considered. Eighteen articles were eligible for review, including three randomized pilot trials. All studies aimed to evaluate the effect of VR on the motor aspects typically affected by PD (balance, postural control, risk of falls, walking, and reaching). The most widely adopted approach has been nonimmersive VR, except for one study that used immersive VR. Both the benefits of physical activity on the motor symptoms of patients with PD and the impact of cognitive reserve during the rehabilitation of these patients were highlighted. The analysis of the results allowed us to outline the ideal cognitive profile of patients with PD who can benefit from the effects of rehabilitation using VR.
Impaired Brain Information Transmission Efficiency and Flexibility in Parkinson’s Disease and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Evidence from Functional Connectivity and Functional Dynamics
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is one of the prodromal symptoms of PD. Studies have shown that brain information transmission is affected in PD patients. Consequently, we hypothesized that brain information transmission is impaired in RBD and PD. To prove our hypothesis, we performed functional connectivity (FC) and functional dynamics analysis of three aspects—based on the whole brain, within the resting-state network (RSN), and the interaction between RSNs—using normal control (NC) (n = 21), RBD (n = 24), and PD (n = 45) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data sets. Furthermore, we tested the explanatory power of FC and functional dynamics for the clinical features. Our results found that the global functional dynamics and FC of RBD and PD were impaired. Within RSN, the impairment concentrated in the visual network (VIS) and sensorimotor network (SMN), and the impaired degree of SMN in RBD was higher than that in PD. On the interaction between RSNs, RBD showed a widespread decrease, and PD showed a focal decrease which concentrated in SMN and VIS. Finally, we proved FC and functional dynamics were related to clinical features. These differences confirmed that brain information transmission efficiency and flexibility are impaired in RBD and PD, and these impairments are associated with the clinical features of patients.
Identification of Potential miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network Contributing to Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, and the mechanism underlying PD pathogenesis is not completely understood. Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in the pathogenesis of PD. This study aimed to explore the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network for PD. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmis) and genes (DEGs) between PD patients and healthy donors were screened from the miRNA dataset GSE16658 and mRNA dataset GSE100054 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Target genes of the DEmis were selected when they were predicted by three or four online databases and overlapped with DEGs from GSE100054. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were then conducted by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Metascape analytic tools. The correlation between the screened genes and PD was evaluated with the online tool Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were built by the STRING platform. We further investigated the expression of genes in the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in blood samples collected from PD patients and healthy donors via qRT-PCR. We identified 1505 upregulated and 1302 downregulated DEGs, and 77 upregulated and 112 downregulated DEmis were preliminarily screened from the GEO database. Further functional enrichment analysis identified 10 PD-related hub genes, including RAC1, IRS2, LEPR, PPARGC1A, CAMKK2, RAB10, RAB13, RAB27B, RAB11A, and JAK2, which were mainly involved in Rab protein signaling transduction, AMPK signaling pathway, and signaling by Leptin. A miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was then constructed with 10 hub genes, and their interacting miRNAs overlapped with DEmis, including miR-30e-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-101-3p, miR-32-3p, miR-508-5p, miR-642a-5p, miR-19a-3p, and miR-21-5p. Analysis of clinical samples verified significant upregulation of LEPR and downregulation of miR-101-3p and miR-30e-5p in PD patients as compared with healthy donors. Thus, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was initially constructed and has the potential to provide novel insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of PD.