Parkinson’s Disease
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Acceptance rate42%
Submission to final decision109 days
Acceptance to publication49 days
CiteScore2.270
Impact Factor2.051
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Freezing More than Gait: A Case Report of Freezing of Urination (FOU) in Parkinson’s Disease

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 Journal profile

Parkinson’s Disease publishes research related to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cellular, molecular and neurophysiology, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

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Research Article

Long-Term Use of Antibiotics and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in the Nurses’ Health Study

Objective. Antibiotic use is one of the strongest environmental predictors of an altered and less diverse gut microbiome, which has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. To our knowledge, no prior study has examined the association between long-term antibiotic use and Parkinson’s disease. Design. We conducted a prospective study of 59,637 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who reported total duration of antibiotic use at ages 20–39, 40–59, 60 +, or during the past 4 years. We used Cox Proportional Hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between categories of antibiotic use and risk of PD. Results. One hundred and eighty cases of PD were confirmed during the follow-up. Self-reported antibiotic use at ages 20–39, 40–59, and 60 +, as assessed in 2004, was not significantly associated with PD risk in our cohort. The hazard ratio comparing participants who used antibiotics for 2 or more months vs. 1–14 days at age 20–39 was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.78), at age 40–59 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.88, 2.33), and at age 60 +was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.47). Antibiotic use during the past four years, as assessed in 2008, was also not associated with future risk of PD (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.10). Conclusion. In this cohort study, we did not observe a significant association between antibiotic use and incidence PD. A major limitation of our study is assessment of exposure, which required many participants to recall their antibiotic use decades in the past. Thus, although the results of this study do not support an effect of antibiotic use on PD risk, larger investigations relying on records of antibiotic prescriptions would provide more definitive evidence.

Research Article

The Therapeutic Effect of Nordic Walking on Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

Introduction. The effectiveness of the currently utilized therapies for FoG is limited. Several studies demonstrated a beneficial impact of Nordic walking (NW) on several gait parameters in Parkinson’s disease, but only one paper reported reduction of freezing. Research Question. In the present study, the question is whether NW is an effective therapeutic intervention in FoG. Methods. Twenty PD subjects trained NW for 12 weeks, with a frequency of twice per week. Each session lasted about 60 minutes. Twenty patients in the control group did not use any form of physiotherapy (no-intervention group). Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Provocative Test for Freezing and Motor Blocks (PTFMB) were performed at baseline, immediately after the end of NW program, and three months later. Results. The results of FOGQ, TUG, and total PTFMB revealed significant improvement after completing the exercise program, and this effect persisted at follow-up. The results of the PTFMB subtests showed a different effect of NW on particular subtypes of FoG. Start hesitation, sudden transient blocks that interrupt gait, and blocks on turning improved considerably, while motor blocks, when walking through narrow space and on reaching the target, did not respond to NW training. Significance. The results show, for the first time, that FoG during turning and step initiation, two most common forms of this gait disorder, has been significantly reduced by NW training. Different responses of particular subtypes of FoG to NW probably reflect their different pathophysiologies. Conclusions. The present study showed that NW training had a beneficial effect on FOG in PD and that the achieved improvement is long-lasting. Future research should clarify whether the observed improvement limited to FoG triggered by only some circumstances reflects different pathomechanisms of FoG subtypes.

Research Article

Novel Compound Heterozygous PRKN Variants in a Han-Chinese Family with Early-Onset Parkinson’s Disease

Genetic factors are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), particularly early-onset PD. The PRKN gene is the primary disease-causing gene for early-onset PD. The details of its functions remain unclear. This study identified novel compound heterozygous variants (p.T240K and p.L272R) of the PRKN gene in a Han-Chinese family with early-onset PD. This finding is helpful in the genetic diagnosis of PD and also the functional research of the PRKN gene.

Research Article

Predictive Factors of Concerns about Falling in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

Introduction. Fear of falling (FOF) is more common in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) than in healthy controls. It can lead to several negative consequences such as restrictions in everyday life. Moreover, FOF is a risk factor for future falls. Aim. This study aimed to identify predictive factors of FOF (conceptualized as concerns about falling) after three years, with and without adjusting for concerns about falling at baseline, in people with PD. Methods. This study included 151 participants (35% women) with PD. At baseline, their mean (SD) age and PD duration were 68 (±9.0) and 9 (±6.1) years, respectively. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) was used as the dependent variable in multivariable linear regression analyses. Results. The mean (SD) FES-I score increased from 28.1 (11.9) to 33.1 (14.0) three years later (). The strongest (according to the standardized regression coefficient, β) predictor of concerns about falling was walking difficulties (β = 0.378), followed by age (0.227), problems maintaining balance while dual tasking (0.172), and needing help in daily activities (0.171). When adjusting for baseline FES-I scores, the strongest predictive factor was problems maintaining balance while dual tasking (β = 0.161), which was followed by age (0.131) and female sex (0.105). Conclusions. This study pinpoints several predictive factors of concerns about falling that are modifiable and which could be addressed in rehabilitation: perceived walking difficulties, having problems maintaining balance while dual tasking, and dependence on others in daily activities. The importance of dual tasking is a novel finding, which future studies need to confirm or refute. One should be aware of the fact that an increased age predicts concerns about falling with and without adjusting for baseline FES-I scores, whereas female sex predicts concerns about falling only when adjusting for baseline FES-I scores.

Review Article

Analysis of the Relationship between Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

In the early sixties, a discussion started regarding the association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Today, this potential relationship is still a matter of debate. This review aims to analyze both diseases concerning causal relationships and treatments. A total of 104 articles were found, and studies on animal and “in vitro” models showed that T2DM causes neurological alterations that may be associated with PD, such as deregulation of the dopaminergic system, a decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), an increase in the expression of phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PED/PEA-15), and neuroinflammation, as well as acceleration of the formation of alpha-synuclein amyloid fibrils. In addition, clinical studies described that Parkinson’s symptoms were notably worse after the onset of T2DM, and seven deregulated genes were identified in the DNA of T2DM and PD patients. Regarding treatment, the action of antidiabetic drugs, especially incretin mimetic agents, seems to confer certain degree of neuroprotection to PD patients. In conclusion, the available evidence on the interaction between T2DM and PD justifies more robust clinical trials exploring this interaction especially the clinical management of patients with both conditions.

Review Article

Patterns and Determinants of Prescribing for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Literature Review

Since the discovery of levodopa (L-dopa) in 1967, the range of medications available to treat Parkinson’s disease has increased significantly and guidance on the use, efficacy, and safety of these medications has evolved. To assess levels of adherence to national prescribing guidelines and awareness of changes in the efficacy and safety data published in the profiles of medications for the treatment of PD, we have reviewed studies on patterns and determinants of prescribing PD medications conducted in the last 50 years (since the discovery of L-dopa). A systematic literature review was conducted using EMBASE (1967 to March, 2018), Ovid MEDLINE(R) ALL (1967 to March 16, 2018), PsycINFO (1967 to the 2nd week of March, 2018), and PubMed to identify all studies measuring prescribing patterns of PD medication between 1967 and 2017. Study design, source of data, country, year of study, number of patients and/or prescriptions, unit of analysis, prescribing determinants, and percentage utilisation of PD medications were extracted where possible. 44 studies examining prescribing patterns and/or prescribing determinants across 17 countries were identified. Unsurprisingly, L-dopa was the most commonly prescribed medication in all studies, accounting for 46.50% to 100% of all prescriptions for PD. In several studies, the prescribing rate of ergot-derived dopamine agonists (DAs) decreased over time in concordance with guidance. In contrast, the prescribing rates of non-ergot DAs increased over the last ten years in most of the included studies. In examining prescribing factors, two major categories were exemplified, patients’ factors and prescribers’ factors, with patients’ age being the most common factor that affected the prescription in most studies. In conclusion, L-dopa is now the most commonly prescribed medication for cases of PD but there is large variation in the prescribing rates of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors, amantadine, and anticholinergics between countries. New studies examining the effects of recent clinical trials and measuring the prescribing rates of newly approved medications are warranted.

Parkinson’s Disease
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate42%
Submission to final decision109 days
Acceptance to publication49 days
CiteScore2.270
Impact Factor2.051
 Submit