Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2010, Article ID 836962, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/836962
Review Article

Total Cholesterol and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Review for Some New Findings

Chronic Disease Epidemiology Laboratory, Population Science, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA

Received 6 July 2009; Revised 18 September 2009; Accepted 14 October 2009

Academic Editor: Pablo Martinez-Martin

Copyright © 2010 Gang Hu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. E. Lang and A. M. Lozano, “Parkinson's disease. First of two parts,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 15, pp. 1044–1053, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. M. Tanner, R. Ottman, S. M. Goldman et al., “Parkinson disease in twins: an etiologic study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 4, pp. 341–346, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Sveinbjornsdottir, A. A. Hicks, T. Jonsson et al., “Familial aggregation of Parkinson's disease in Iceland,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 24, pp. 1765–1770, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Lewington, G. Whitlock, R. Clarke et al., “Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths,” The Lancet, vol. 370, pp. 1829–1839, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  5. I. L. Notkola, R. Sulkava, J. Pekkanen et al., “Serum total cholesterol, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Kivipelto, E. L. Helkala, M. P. Laakso et al., “Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, elevated midlife total cholesterol level, and high midlife systolic blood pressure are independent risk factors for late-life Alzheimer disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 149–155, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Suh, S. H. Jee, H. C. Kim, C. M. Nam, I. S. Kim, and L. J. Appel, “Low serum cholesterol and haemorrhagic stroke in men: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9260, pp. 922–925, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. C. E. Teunissen, D. Lutjohann, K. Von Bergmann et al., “Combination of serum markers related to several mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 893–902, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Sohmiya, M. Tanaka, N. W. Tak et al., “Redox status of plasma coenzyme Q10 indicates elevated systemic oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. G. Scigliano, M. Musicco, P. Soliveri, I. Piccolo, G. Ronchetti, and F. Girotti, “Reduced risk factors for vascular disorders in Parkinson disease patients: a case-control study,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1184–1188, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. X. Huang, H. Chen, W. C. Miller et al., “Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 377–381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. A. Grandinetti, D. M. Morens, D. Reed, and D. Maceachern, “Prospective study of cigarette smoking and the risk of developing idiopathic Parkinson's disease,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 139, no. 12, pp. 1129–1138, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. Huang, R. D. Abbott, H. Petrovitch, R. B. Mailman, and G. W. Ross, “Low LDL cholesterol and increased risk of Parkinson's disease: prospective results from Honolulu-Asia Aging Study,” Movement Disorders, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1013–1018, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. L. M. De Lau, P. J. Koudstaal, A. Hofman, and M. M. Breteler, “Serum cholesterol levels and the risk of Parkinson's disease,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 164, no. 10, pp. 998–1002, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  15. K. C. Simon, H. Chen, M. Schwarzschild, and A. Ascherio, “Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and risk of Parkinson disease,” Neurology, vol. 69, no. 17, pp. 1688–1695, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. G. Hu, R. Antikainen, P. Jousilahti, M. Kivipelto, and J. Tuomilehto, “Total cholesterol and the risk of Parkinson disease,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 21, pp. 1972–1979, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. A. Solomon, I. Kareholt, T. Ngandu et al., “Serum cholesterol changes after midlife and late-life cognition: twenty-one-year follow-up study,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 751–756, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. A. B. Reiss, K. A. Siller, M. M. Rahman, E. S. Chan, J. Ghiso, and M. J. De Leon, “Cholesterol in neurologic disorders of the elderly: stroke and Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 977–989, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. P. Bar-On, E. Rockenstein, A. Adame, G. Ho, M. Hashimoto, and E. Masliah, “Effects of the cholesterol-lowering compound methyl-β-cyclodextrin in models of α-synucleinopathy,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1032–1045, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. G. Barcelo-Coblijn, M. Y. Golovko, I. Weinhofer, J. Berger, and E. J. Murphy, “Brain neutral lipids mass is increased in α-synuclein gene-ablated mice,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 132–141, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. H. Jick, G. L. Zornberg, S. S. Jick, S. Seshadri, and D. A. Drachman, “Statins and the risk of dementia,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9242, pp. 1627–1631, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Hu, P. Jousilahti, A. Nissinen, R. Antikainen, M. Kivipelto, and J. Tuomilehto, “Body mass index and the risk of Parkinson disease,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1955–1959, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. R. D. Abbott, G. W. Ross, L. R. White et al., “Midlife adiposity and the future risk of Parkinson's disease,” Neurology, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1051–1057, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Chen, S. M. Zhang, M. A. Schwarzschild, M. A. Hernan, and A. Ascherio, “Physical activity and the risk of Parkinson disease,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 664–669, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Hu, P. Jousilahti, S. Bidel, R. Antikainen, and J. Tuomilehto, “Type 2 diabetes and the risk of Parkinson's disease,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 842–847, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. G. Hu, S. Bidel, P. Jousilahti, R. Antikainen, and J. Tuomilehto, “Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 2242–2248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. M. A. Hernan, B. Takkouche, F. Caamano-Isorna, and J. J. Gestal-Otero, “A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 276–284, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. G. Logroscino, K. Marder, L. Cote, M. X. Tang, S. Shea, and R. Mayeux, “Dietary lipids and antioxidants in Parkinson's disease: a population-based, case-control study,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. C. Johnson, J. M. Gorell, B. A. Rybicki, K. Sanders, and E. L. Peterson, “Adult nutrient intake as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1102–1109, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Chen, S. M. Zhang, M. A. Hernan, W. C. Willett, and A. Ascherio, “Dietary intakes of fat and risk of Parkinson's disease,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 157, no. 11, pp. 1007–1014, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus