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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2011, Article ID 143547, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/143547
Review Article

Neurobiology of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease

1Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, 6-11-1 Omorinishi, Otaku, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan
2Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, 6565 Fannin Street, B05-039G, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Department of Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin Street, R6-212, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 15 October 2010; Accepted 13 March 2011

Academic Editor: Irena Rektorova

Copyright © 2011 Osamu Kano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have important consequences on quality of life. These have long been recognized as frequent accompanying syndromes of PD, and several reports suggest that these are the causative process or risk factors that are present many years before the appearance of motor symptoms. The neurochemical changes in PD involving dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin might be related to the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety, but this is still not clear. Several studies showed that anxiety in PD patients occurs earlier than depression, during premotor phase, suggesting that there may be a link between the mechanisms that cause anxiety and PD. Whereas a recent study reported that PD patients with depression and anxiety were associated with different demographic and clinical features.