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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 473579, 5 pages
Clinical Study

Nonmotor Symptoms Groups in Parkinson's Disease Patients: Results of a Pilot, Exploratory Study

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Paul Sabatier University, and NSERM CIC9023 and UMR 825 Allées Jules Guesde, 31000 Toulouse, France
2Movement Disorders Section, Raul Carrea Institute for Neurological Research (FLENI), Buenos Aires, Argentina
3Departamento de Docencia e Investigación, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, 1107 Buenos Aires, Argentina
4Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1121 Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received 14 October 2010; Revised 24 February 2011; Accepted 23 March 2011

Academic Editor: Irena Rektorova

Copyright © 2011 Santiago Perez Lloret et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) like neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbances or autonomic symptoms are a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the existence of groups of NMS and to relate them to PD characteristics, 71 idiopathic non-demented PD out-patients were recruited. Sleep was evaluated by the PD Sleep Scale (PDSS). Several neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal and urogenital symptoms were obtained from the NMSQuest. Sialorrhea or dysphagia severity was obtained from the Unified PD Rating Scale activities of daily living section. MADRS depression scale was also administered. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the presence of 5 factors, explaining 70% of variance. The first factor included PDSS measurement of sleep quality, nocturnal restlessness, off-related problems and daytime somnolence; the second factor included nocturia (PDSS) and nocturnal activity; the third one included gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms; the forth one included nocturnal psychosis (PDSS), sialorrhea and dysphagia (UPDRS); and the last one included the MADRS score as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sleep disorders correlated with presence of wearing-off, nocturia with age >69 years, and nocturnal psychosis with levodopa equivalent dose or UPDRS II score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms correlated with UPDRS II+III score and non-tricyclic antidepressants. These results support the occurrence of significant NMS grouping in PD patients.