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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 174079, 12 pages
Clinical Study

Metacognitive Performance, the Tip-of-Tongue Experience, Is Not Disrupted in Parkinsonian Patients

1Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Health Professions Building, Room 2181, 1280 E. Campus Drive, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
2Department of Psychiatry & Psychology, Behavioral Health Services, Lutheran Hospital, 1730 W. 25th Street, Cleveland, OH 44113, USA
3Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
4Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
5Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, 101 Sloan Hall, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA

Received 22 March 2011; Revised 12 December 2011; Accepted 12 January 2012

Academic Editor: Gregory P. Crucian

Copyright © 2012 Justin D. Oh-Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study investigated whether a form of metamemory, the tip-of-tongue phenomenon (TOT), was affected in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The PD patient ( š¯‘› = 2 2 ), age-matched elderly control ( š¯‘› = 2 2 ), and college student control ( š¯‘› = 4 6 ) groups were compared on a motor timing task and TOT measures. Motor timing was assessed using a cued hand-clapping task, whereas TOT was assessed using general knowledge questions. The results indicated that motor timing was significantly impaired in the PD group relative to both control groups. However, all of the TOT metacognitive measures: frequency, strength, and accuracy were statistically equivalent between the PD patients and elderly control groups, both of whom showed significantly better memory performance than college controls. These findings demonstrate that TOT metamemory is not compromised in PD patients, and that further insight into TOT mechanisms in PD may prove helpful in developing novel intervention strategies to enhance memory and general cognitive functions in these patients.